DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20192579

Association between socio-demographic profile and severity of cognitive impairment in elder patients presenting with new onset of psychiatric symptoms: a cross sectional study

Jery Antony, Anisha Nakulan, Shiny John

Abstract


Background: Cognitive impairment in the elderly is a common condition and, in most instances, primary care providers are the first point of contact for a patient and family. This study was aimed to find out the association between socio-demographic profile and severity of cognitive impairment in elder patients presenting with new onset of psychiatric symptoms.

Methods: A cross sectional study was done among elder subjects (≥60 years of age) presented with new onset of psychiatric symptoms during one year period. A structured questionnaire was used to assess the socio-demographic details such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status and marital status. Mini International Neuropsychiatric interview and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale were used for psychiatric diagnosis and severity of cognitive impairment grading, respectively. Association between socio-demographic data and cognitive impairment was statistically analyzed.

Results: Among the 67 subjects included in the study, 76.2% had cognitive impairment. Majority of the subjects were females (56.7%) in the age group of 66-70 years. The association between cognitive impairment and sex (p=0.006), education (p=0.002) and occupation (p=0.015) were significant. But no significant association between cognitive impairment and marital status (p=0.0137) or socioeconomic status (p=0.400) was evidenced.

Conclusions: Females in the age group of 66-70 years were more prevalent to cognitive impairment. The association between sex, education, occupation and severity of cognitive impairment was significant. No significant association between severity of cognitive impairment score and marital status or socioeconomic status was found.


Keywords


Cognitive impairment, Dementia, Montreal cognitive assessment scale, Psychiatric symptoms

Full Text:

PDF

References


Plassman BL, Langa KM, Fisher GG, Heeringa SG, Weir DR, Ofstedal MB, et al. Prevalence of dementia in the United States: the aging, demographics, and memory study. Neuroepidemiol. 2007;29(1-2):125-32.

Petersen RC, Roberts RO, Knopman DS, Geda YE, Cha RH, Pankratz VS, et al. Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment is higher in men than in women. The Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Neurol. 2010;75(10):889-97.

Knopman DS, Petersen RC, Rocca WA, Larson EB, Ganguli M. Passive case-finding for Alzheimer’s disease and dementia in two U.S. communities. Alzheimers Dement. 2011;7(1):53-60.

Lyketsos CG, Lopez O, Jones B, Fitzpatrick AL, Breitner J, DeKosky S. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: Results from the cardiovascular health study. JAMA. 2002;288(12):1475-83.

Lyketsos CG, Steele C, Baker L, Galik E, Kopunek S, Steinberg M, et al. Major and minor depression in Alzheimer’s disease: Prevalence and impact. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1997;9(4):556-61.

Ellison JM, Harper DG, Berlow Y, Zeranski L. Beyond the “C” in MCI: Noncognitive symptoms in amnestic and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment. CNS Spectr. 2008;13(1):66-72.

Das SK, Bose P, Biswas A, Dutt A, Banerjee TK, Hazra A, et al. An epidemiologic study of mild cognitive impairment in Kolkata, India. Neurol. 2007;68(23):2019-26.

Tierney MC, Szalai JP, Snow WG, Fisher RH, Nores A, Nadon G, et al. Prediction of probable Alzheimer's disease in memory-impaired patients: A prospective longitudinal study. Neurol. 1996;46(3):661-5.

Satishchandra S, Sivakumar PT, Matthew V. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in elderly patients attending Central Government Health Services Clinic. Souvenir of Alzheimer's and Related Disorders Society of India. XIV National Conference. 27-28 September. 2008;56.

Mridula KR, Alladi S, Shailaja M, Santoshi K, Subhash K. Mild Cognitive Impairment: Characterisation of clinical, neuropsychological, imaging profile and outcome. Souvenir of Alzheimer's and Related Disorders Society of India. XIV National Conference. 27-28 September, 2008:52.

Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, et al. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59 Suppl 20:22-33;quiz 34-57.

Nasreddine ZS, Phillips NA, Bédirian V, Charbonneau S, Whitehead V, Collin I, et al. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MOCA: a brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(4):695-9.

Steinberg M, Shao H, Lyketsos CG, Zandi P, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Norton MC, et al. Point and 5-year period prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: the Cache County Study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;23(2):170-77.

Prasad KM, Sreenivas KN, Ashok MV, Bagchi D. Psychogeriatric patients: A socio-demographic and clinical profile. Indian J Psychiatry. 1996;38(3):178-81.

Ritchie K, Artero S, Beluche I, Ancelin ML, Mann A, Dupuy AM, et al. Prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorder in the French elderly population. Br J Psychiatry.2004;184(2):147-52.

Seby K, Chaudhury S, Chakraborty R. Prevalence of Psychiatric and physical morbidity in an urban geriatric population. Indian J Psychiatry. 2011;53(2):121-7.

Hu YR, Goldman N. Mortality differentials by marital-status-an international comparison. Demography. 1990;27(2):233-50.

Premarajan KC, Danabalan M, Chandrasekhar R, Srinivasa DK. Prevalence of Psychiatric morbidity in an urban community of Pondicherry. Indian J Psychiatry. 1993;35(2):99-102.

Jain RK, Aras RY. Depression in Geriatric population in urban slums of Mumbai. Indian J Public Health. 2007;51(2):112-3.

Mielke MM, Vemuri P, Rocca WA. Clinical epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease: Assessing sex and gender differences Clin Epidemiol. 2014;6:37-48.

Ritchie K, Artero S, Beluche I, Ancelin ML, Mann A, Dupuy AM, Malafosse A, Boulenger JP. Br J Psychiatry. 2004:184(2);147-52.

Seby K, Chaudhury S, Chakraborty R. Prevalence of Psychiatric and physical morbidity in an urban geriatric population. Indian J Psychiatry. 2011;53(2):121-7.