A study on incidence of congenital anomalies in new borns and their association with fetal factors: a prospective study

Mohammad K. Gandhi, Upendra Rameshbhai Chaudhari, Nilesh Thakor


Background: Congenital malformation represents defects in morphogenesis during early fetal life. Congenital anomalies account for 8–15% of perinatal deaths and 13–16% of neonatal deaths in India. The objective was to study incidence of clinically detectable congenital malformations in new-borns delivered at a tertiary hospital and their association with fetal factors.

Methods: The present study is a prospective study of all the newborns delivered at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, New Civil Hospital, Surat for a period of one year from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2010. Total 5518 consecutive births including both live born babies and still born babies were examined after taking verbal and written consent of their mothers for a visible structural anomalies to determine the overall incidence and distribution of congenital malformations and their association with fetal factors. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software (trial version).

Results: A total of 5518 babies were born out of which 75 were twins. Total numbers of malformed babies were 68, so total point incidence of congenital anomalies turned out to be 1.23%. There were 2963 male new-borns, out of that 40 were congenitally malformed (1.34%) and out of 2555 female new-borns 28 were congenitally malformed (1.09%). No significant association was found between congenital malformation and sex of the child. Out of total 5518 new-borns 5316 were live births and 202 were still births and out of 5316 live births 48 babies were malformed and out of 202 still births 20 babies were malformed. Out of total 5518 new-borns 1227 had birth weight less than 1500 grams and out of them 12 (0.97%) babies were congenitally malformed. Out of 5518 new-borns 221 were preterm babies and out of 221 preterm babies 26 (12.32%) babies were congenitally malformed.

Conclusions: From present study it has been concluded that congenital anomalies in new-borns were significantly associated with fetal factors like still birth, prematurity and low birth weight.


Congenital anomalies, Congenital malformations, Still births, Birth defects, Fetal factors

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