Sexual dimorphism: metric measurements based study in human talus bone


  • Tarun Dagar Department of Forensic Medicine, Dr. Radhakrishnan Govt. Medical College, Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India
  • Luv Sharma Department of Forensic Medicine, Pt. B. D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak, Haryana, India
  • Kunal Khanna Department of Forensic Medicine, Kalpana Chawla Govt. Medical College, Karnal, Haryana, India



Calcaneum, Identification, Metric analysis, Talus



Background: Identification is the act of establishing the identity of an individual. This is a dynamic process and human remains in form of bones can serve as an excellent tool for establishing the sexual identity of the deceased, along with other methods such as DNA, fingerprints, blood group identification etc. Metric analysis of various bones can serve as a viable alternative in cases when morphological analysis is not possible due to damage to the skeletal remains or as an additive analytical tool to establish a positive identity.

Methods: Metric analysis of various parameters of randomly selected 100 pairs of human talus bones (50 male and 50 female) as a means of establishing sexual identity from skeletal remains obtained from unidentified and unclaimed dead bodies brought for autopsy.

Results: In the present study we found that the values of all the various dimensions measured were higher among the male subjects as compared to that in female samples as was expected. On further analysis, this difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). For the right sided and left sided talus bone, the probable accuracy for various parameters ranged between 83.3% to 100% each, thus indicating strong correlation between sex of the subject and various measurements.

Conclusions: The tarsal and their dimensions are highly sexually dimorphic and are useful in determining sex in individuals of this region.


Thompson T, Black S. Forensic Human Identification- An introduction. London: CRC Press; 2007:199-201.

Klepinger L. Fundamentals of Forensic Anthropology. New Jersey: Wiley-Liss John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2006:25-9.

Krogman WM, Iscan MY. The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine. 3rd ed. Springfield: CC Thomas.1986:189-90.

David WF, Milford HW. Sexual dimorphism. Ann Rev Anthropol. 1985; 14:429-73.

Bidmos MA, Dayal MR. Sex determination from the talus of South African whites by discriminant function analysis. Am J forens med pathol. 2003;24(4):322-8.

Bidmos MA, Dayal MR. Further evidence to show population specificity of discriminant function equations for sex determination using the talus of South African blacks. J Forens Sci. 2004;49(6):JFS2003431-6.

Steele DG. The estimation of sex on the basis of the talus and calcaneus. Am J Physic Anthropol. 1976;45(3):581-8.

Wilbur AK. The utility of hand and foot bones for the determination of sex and the estimation of stature in a prehistoric population from west‐central Illinois. International J Osteoarchaeol. 1998;8(3):180-91.

Barrett C, Cavallari W, Sciulli PW. Estimation of sex from the talus in prehistoric native Americans. Collegium antropologicum. 2001;25(1):13-9.

Murphy AM. The talus: sex assessment of prehistoric New Zealand Polynesian skeletal remains. Forensic science international. 2002;128(3):155-8.

Ferrari J, Hopkinson DA, Linney AD. Size and shape differences between male and female foot bones: is the female foot predisposed to hallux abducto valgus deformity?. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2004;94(5):434-52.

Gualdi-Russo E. Sex determination from the talus and calcaneus measurements. Forensic Science International. 2007;171(2-3):151-6.

Lee UY, Han SH, Park DK, Kim YS, Kim DI, Chung IH, Chun MH. Sex determination from the talus of Koreans by discriminant function analysis. J forens sci. 2012;57(1):166-71.

Javia MD, Patel MM, Kubavat DM, Dixit D, Singel TC. Morphometry of the Talus on the Basis of Sexual Dimorphism. Ind J Res. 2013; 3(5):208-12.




How to Cite

Dagar, T., Sharma, L., & Khanna, K. (2019). Sexual dimorphism: metric measurements based study in human talus bone. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 7(8), 3070–3076.



Original Research Articles