Action research arm test as a tool for assessment of motor recovery in patients with stroke: a critical review
Keywords:Scales, Stroke recovery, Upper Extremity
Action research arm test has been used widely clinically for the assessment of upper extremity function post stroke and in various other conditions. Measurement of recovery after stroke is becoming increasingly important with the advent of new treatment options under investigation in stroke rehabilitation research. The Action Research Arm Test scale was developed as the first quantitative evaluative instrument for measuring motor stroke recovery, based on a upper extremity test by Lyle. It is a well-designed, feasible and efficient clinical examination method that has been tested widely in the stroke population. Excellent interrater and intrarater reliability and construct validity have been demonstrated. Limitations of the motor domain include a ceiling effect. Further study should test performance of this scale in specific subgroups of stroke patients and better define its criterion validity, sensitivity to change, and minimal clinically important difference. Based on the available evidence, the Action Research Arm Test is recommended highly as a clinical and research tool for evaluating changes in motor impairment following stroke.
Song CS. Intrarater reliability of the action research arm test for individuals with Parkinson’s disease. J Physic Therapy Sci. 2012;24(12):1355-7.
Carpinella I, Cattaneo D, Ferrarin M. Quantitative assessment of upper limb motor function in Multiple Sclerosis using an instrumented Action Research Arm Test. J Neuroengineer Rehabilitat. 2014;11(1):67.
De Weerdt WJ, Harrison MA. Measuring recovery of arm-hand function in stroke patients: a comparison of the Brunnstrom-Fugl-Meyer test and the Action Research Arm test. Physio Canada. 1985;37(2):65-70.
Lyle RC. A performance test for assessment of upper limb function in physical rehabilitation treatment and research. International J Rehabilitat Res. 1981;4(4):483-92.
Carroll D. A quantitative test of upper extremity function. J Chronic Dis. 1965;18(5):479-91.
Van der Lee JH, De Groot V, Beckerman H, Wagenaar RC, Lankhorst GJ, Bouter LM. The intra-and interrater reliability of the action research arm test: a practical test of upper extremity function in patients with stroke. Arch Physic Med Rehabilitat. 2001;82(1):14-9.
Sabari JS, Lim AL, Velozo CA, Lehman L, Kieran O, Lai JS. Assessing arm and hand function after stroke: a validity test of the hierarchical scoring system used in the motor assessment scale for stroke. Arch Physic Med Rehabilitat. 2005;86(8):1609-15.
van der Lee JH, Roorda LD, Beckerman H, Lankhorst GJ, Bouter LM. Improving the Action Research Arm test: a unidimensional hierarchical scale. Clinic Rehabilitat. 2002;16(6):646-53.
Yozbatiran N, Der-Yeghiaian L, Cramer SC. A standardized approach to performing the action research arm test. Neurorehabilitat Neural Repair. 2008;22(1):78-90.
Hsueh IP, Lee MM, Hsieh CL. The Action Research Arm Test: is it necessary for patients being tested to sit at a standardized table?. Clinical Rehabilitat. 2002;16(4):382-8.
Hsieh CL, Hsueh IP, Chiang FM, Lin PH. Inter-rater reliability and validity of the action research arm test in stroke patients. Age Ageing. 1998;27(2):107-13.
Nijland R, van Wegen E, Verbunt J, van Wijk R, van Kordelaar J, Kwakkel G. A comparison of two validated tests for upper limb function after stroke: The Wolf Motor Function Test and the Action Research Arm Test. J Rehabilitat Med. 2010;42(7):694-6.
Rabadi MH, Rabadi FM. Comparison of the action research arm test and the Fugl-Meyer assessment as measures of upper-extremity motor weakness after stroke. Arch Physic Med Rehabilitat. 2006;87(7):962-6.
Gladstone DJ, Danells CJ, Black SE. The Fugl-Meyer assessment of motor recovery after stroke: a critical review of its measurement properties. Neurorehabilitat Neural Repair. 2002;16(3):232-40.
Chen HF, Lin KC, Wu CY, Chen CL. Rasch validation and predictive validity of the action research arm test in patients receiving stroke rehabilitation. Arch Physic Med Rehabilitat. 2012;93(6):1039-45.
Lin KC, Chuang LL, Wu CY, Hsieh YW, Chang WY. Responsiveness and validity of three dexterous function measures in stroke rehabilitation. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2010;47(6):563-71.
Lang CE, Wagner JM, Dromerick AW, Edwards DF. Measurement of upper-extremity function early after stroke: properties of the action research arm test. Arch Physic Med Rehabilitat. 2006;87(12):1605-10.
Koh CL, Hsueh I, Wang WC, Sheu CF, Yu TY, Wang CH, Hsieh CL. Validation of the action research arm test using item response theory in patients after stroke. J Rehabilitat Med. 2006;38(6):375-80.
Tempest S, McIntyre A. Using the ICF to clarify team roles and demonstrate clinical reasoning in stroke rehabilitation. Disability Rehabilitat. 2006;28(10):663-7.
Salter K, Jutai JW, Teasell R, Foley NC, Bitensky J, Bayley M. Issues for selection of outcome measures in stroke rehabilitation: ICF Participation. Disability Rehabilitat. 2005;27(9):507-28.
Salter K, Jutai JW, Teasell R, Foley NC, Bitensky J, Bayley M. Issues for selection of outcome measures in stroke rehabilitation: ICF activity. Disability Rehabilitat. 2005;27(6):315-40.
Salter K, Jutai JW, Teasell R, Foley NC, Bitensky J. Issues for selection of outcome measures in stroke rehabilitation: ICF Body Functions. Disability Rehabilitat. 2005;27(4):191-207.