Socio-demographic profile of Human Immunodeficiency Virus patients on second line antiretroviral therapy in a tertiary care centre of North-East India
Keywords:Cross-sectional studies, Demography, Female, Heterosexuality
Background: HIV/ AIDS is one of the major global health issue, resulting an epidemic. Understanding the socio-demographic profile with magnitude of risky behavior might include positive messages in the routine HIV/AIDS care and treatment. Objective of this study was to find out the socio-demographic, behavioural characteristics among patients receiving second line ART (Anti-Retroviral therapy) in a tertiary centre of North-East India.
Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out among 90 PLWHA patients receiving second line ART in Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal from March 2016 to August 2017. A predesigned and pretested schedule was used as study tool to collect required information.
Results: Majority participants (43.3%) belonged to 30-40 years age group, mean age 39.96±8.021 years; 51.1% were female. Majority (58.9%) got infected with HIV through heterosexual route followed by IV drug use (31.1%). Nearly half (51.1%) were diagnosed with HIV for 11-15 years duration and majority (61.1%) were under 2nd line ART for 6-10 years duration. Here, 3.3% subjects had Hepatitis B and 7.8% were infected with hepatitis C.
Conclusions: Young population were most affected group and heterosexual route being the commonest mode of transmission. Combination of socio-demographic, behavioural risk factor and unawareness are responsible for rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. So, people need to be educated for primary and secondary prevention.
AIDS Epidemic Update. WHO/UNAIDS, 2010. Available at: https://www.unaids.org/globalreport/documents/20101123_GlobalReport_full_en.pdf. Accessed 15 April 2016.
HIV/AIDS fact sheet. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs360/en/. Updated November 2014. Accessed 25 December 2016.
National AIDS Control Organisation. NACO Annual Report; 2013‑14. Available at: http://naco.gov.in/sites/default/files/NACO_English%202013-14.pdf. Accessed 23 January 2017.
National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO). Department of AIDS Control, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Annual Report; 2011. Available at; http://naco.gov.in/documents/annual-reports. Accessed 23 January 2017.
State Fact Sheets March 2014. Department of AIDS Control. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Available at: http://naco.gov.in/sites/default/files/State_Fact_Sheet_2013_14.pdf. Accessed 25 December 2016.
Kishore J. National health programmes of India. 5th edition. New Delhi: Century publications; 2010: 138.
HHS/CDC Global AIDS program (G A P) in India. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/globalAIDS/docs/2005RevisedGAPFACTSHEET.pdf. Accessed 10 July 2016.
Muralidharan S, Acharya AK, Margabandu S, Purushotaman S, Kannan R, Mahendrakar S, et al. Stigma and Discrimination faced by HIV-infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy for more than 1 Year in Raichur Taluk, Karnataka, India. J Contemporary Dental Prac. 2017 Sep;18(9):765-70.
Kumari R, Kumar M, Mohapatra SC. Clinico-demographic profile of HIV patients at ART centre of a tertiary care referral hospital in North India. Inter J Commu Med Public Health. 2017;4(9):3166-73.
Patrikar S, Subramaniam S, Vasudevan B, Bhatti V, Kotwal A. Profile of HIV Patients on Second Line Antiretroviral Therapy: The Indian Experience. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6(459):2.
Malhotra V, Balgir R, Kaura S. Socio-Demographic Profile and Risky Behaviour Pattern of Patients Registered at ART Centre, Patiala, Punjab. Ntl J Community Med. 2016;7(2):101-5.
Sarkar T, Karmakar N, Dasgupta A, Saha B. A Cross-Sectional Study on Socio- Demographic, Behavioural & Clinical Profile of Adult Male People Living With HIV/AIDS Attending In A Tertiary Hospital of Kolkata, India. Saudi Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018;4(3): 354-60. Available at: https://scholarsmepub.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/SJMPS-43-354-360-c.pdf Accessed on 10 July 2019.
Stein JH, Klein MA, Bellehumeur JL, McBride PE, Wiebe DA, Otvos JD, et al. Use of human immunodeficiency virus-1 protease inhibitors is associated with atherogenic lipoprotein changes and endothelial dysfunction. Circulation. 2001;104(3):257-62.
Ramesh K, Rao DN. Clinico-Epidemilogical Profile of HIV Positive Patients on Anti Retroviral Treatment at VIMS, Bellary, Karnataka. J Evolution Medical Dental Sci. 2013;2(1):23-8.
Jayarama S, Shenoy S, Unnikrishnan B, Ramapuram J, Rao M. Profiles of attendees in voluntary counseling and testing centers of a medical college hospital in coastal Karnataka. Ind J Commu Med: Official Publication Ind Assoc Preventive Soc Med. 2008;33(1):43.
Mahajan A, Tandon VR, Verma S, Singh JB, Sharma M. Prevalence of tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis co-infections among HIV/AIDS patients. Ind J Med Microbiol. 2008;26(2):196.
Jain M, Chakravarti A, Verma V, Bhalla P. Seroprevalence of hepatitis viruses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Ind J Pathol Microbiol. 2009;52(1):17.