Published: 2019-10-24

Histogenesis of human fetal kidney from 14 weeks to 36 weeks: a study

Divya Jain Pokarna, K. Kshitija, Seethamsetty Saritha


Background: The knowledge of fetal human Kidney morphology and developmental anatomy is very important for prenatal diagnosis of disorders such as Wilm’s tumor, hydronephroses and congenital malformation etc.

Methods: The study was carried out on 40 kidneys procured from 20 spontaneously aborted fetuses (11males and 9 females) ranging from 14wks-36wks of gestation, after confirming their age through  CRL they were grouped and then processed to form slides and stained with haemtoxylin and eosin and seen under light microscope.

Results: All kidneys were lobulated at early gestational age and became fused by 36 wks. Corticomedullary junction and preformed collecting tubules were seen clearly by 18wks. Well differentiated PCT and DCT were formed by 19-23 wks. Well-formed pyramids by 28 wks and medullary rays by 29 weeks were clearly distinguished. Loop of Henle developed and distinguished by 28 wks. Increased vascularity was seen by 32-36 wks. Nephrogenic zone and undifferentiated mesenchyme decreased and matured glomeruli increased by 36 wks.

Conclusions: The present study gave emphasis to the development of each component in medulla and cortex of kidney.




Corticomedullary junction, Distal Convolutes tubules, Intrauterine growth retardation, Loop of henle, Proximal convoluted tubules

Full Text:



Tank KC, Saiyad SS, Pandya AM, Akbari VJ, Dangar KP. A study of histogenesis of human fetal kidney. Int J Biol Med Res. 2012 Jan;3(1):1315-21.

Sharma S, Raina S. Study of human fetal kidney. Int J Anat Res. 2014;2(4):785-90.

Dyson M. Urinary System In: Gray`s anatomy. Williams PL, Bannister LH, Berry MM, Collins P, et al. eds. 38th ed. Publisher: Churchill Livingstone, New York, Edinburgh; London, 1995: 1815-1828.

Young B, Lowe JS, Stevens A, Heath JW. Urinary system In Wheater’s functional histology. Whitehouse A. Eds. 5th ed. Publisher: Churchill Livingston; UK, 2006: 302-320.

Merkel CE, Karner CM, Carroll TJ. Molecular regulation of kidney development: is the answer blowing in the Wnt?. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Nov 1;22(11):1825-38.

Ram KS , Sharma A , Sahni D, Chawla K, Singh HJ. Developmental Changes in Histology Of Human Fetal Kidney. IJSRM. 2014;2(9):1394-1400.

Hamilton WJ, Boyd JD, Mossman HW. Human Embryology (Prenatal development of form and function). Human Embryol. 1945:172-7.

Solanke K, Bhatnagar R, Dibyajyoti B. occurring during development of kidney in 12wk-35wk human fetu. Available onl Article History. 2017.

Mamatha Hosapatna, Hemalatha Bangera, Anne D Souza, Aswin Das, Supriya, Antony Sylvan D Souza, et al. Histological differentiation of human fetal kidney. IAIM. 2015;2(7):49-54.

Patil DS, Patil DP, Mane DA. Histogenesis of Human Fetal Kidney.

Potter L. Development of the human glomerulus. Arch Pathol. 1965;80:241-255.

Syed SA, Joshi RA, Herekar NG. Histogenesis of Kidney in Human Fetuses. Int J Recent Trends Scie Technol. 2012;3(2):44-8.

Mishra S, Dinesh A, Kaul JM. Morphological and morpho-metrical study of human renal development during midgestation period. J Anat Soc India. 2006;55(2):5-10.

Rao BN, Padmini MP. Prenatal histogenesis of kindey in human foetuses. International J Basic Appl Med Sci. 2012;2:144-7.

Vinci L, Locci A, Gerosa C, Puddu M, Ottonello G, Fanos V, et al. Structural and cellular changes in fetal renal papilla during development. J Pediatr Neonatal Indiv Med (JPNIM). 2017 Feb 25;6(1):e060136.

Takano K, Kawasaki Y, Imaizumi T, Matsuura H, Nozawa R, Tannji M, Suyama K, Isome M, Suzuki H, Hosoya M. Development of glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes and mesangial cells in the human fetus and infant. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2007;212(1):81-90 .

Lizardo-Daudt HM, Edelweiss MI, Santos FT, Schumacher RD. Diagnosis of the human fetal age based on the development of the normal kidney. J Brasileiro de Patolo Med Laborat. 2002;38(2):135-9.

Sampaio FJ. Analysis of kidney volume growth during the fetal period in humans. Urol Res. 1992 Jun 1;20(4):271-4.