Elevated blood pressure and obesity in young adults of hypertensive parent versus normotensive parents

Ramya K, Mukundan A, Lokesh Maran A


Background:Hypertension has become one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Family history of hypertension increases the risk of occurrence of elevated blood pressure and hypertension in their offspring. Simple measures like blood pressure measurements and anthropometric measures can used easily for screening them. So, this study was aimed to assess the association of elevated blood pressure and obesity in young adults of one parent hypertensive versus normotensive parents.

Methods:This is a case control study. Subjects were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria with a sample size of 82, using a pretest proforma. Weight, height, heart rate and blood pressure were measured for each participant using standard methods. Then the data obtained was analyzed using mean±SD and unpaired t- test.

Results: BMI and systolic blood pressure were found to have significant difference when compared between group-I and group-II, with p-value of 0.0003 (<0.05) and 0.0145 (<0.05) respectively. Whereas other parameters like heart rate, diastolic pressure and mean arterial pressure did not show any significant difference between group-I and group-II.

Conclusions:Elevated blood pressure and increased BMI in young adults of single parent hypertensive, is stressing upon the need to screen them at their first and second decades of life to prevent complications in the future.



Family history of hypertension, Obesity, Blood pressure, Young adults

Full Text:



Mo R, Omvik P, Lund-Johansen P. The Bergen blood pressure study: offspring of two hypertensive parents have significantly higher blood pressures than offspring of one hypertensive and one normotensive parent. J Hypertens. 1995;13(12 Pt 2):1614-7.

Singhal V, Agal P, Nutan Kamat. The prevalence of elevated blood pressure and the association of obesity in asymptomatic female adolescent offsprings of hypertensive and normotensive parents. J Clin Diagn Res. 2012;Suppl 6(7):1158-61.

Kazim, S, Salman, M, Zubairi, A, Afzal, A, Ahmad, U, Frossard P. Offsprings of hypertensive parents have higher blood pressure and BMI. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2008;18(1):64-5.

Pal GK, Pal P, Nanda N, Lalitha V, Dutta TK, Adithan G. Sympathovagal imbalance in prehypertensive offspring of two parents versus one parent hypertensive. Int J Hypertension. 2011:1-8.

Ramya K, Mukundan A. Assessment of pulmonary functions in overweight adults- a case control study. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2015;6(4):238-43.

Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Technical report series no. 854, World Health organisation expert committee. Geneva.1995;427-38.

Ramya K, Ganesh KJ, Mukundan A. A study of anthropometric indices between hypertensive and normotensive adults. Int J Cur Res Rev. 2014;06(06):36-43.

Tiret L. Gene polymorphisms of the renin-angiot- ensin system in relation to hypertension and parental history of myocardial infarction and stroke: the PEGASE study. J Hypertens. 1998;16:37-44.

Caulfield M. Linkage of the angiotensinogen gene to essential hypertension. N Engl J Med. 1994;330: 1629-33.

Elias MC, Bolivar MS, Fonseca FA, Martinez TL, Angelini J, Ferreira C, et al. Comparison of the lipid profile, blood pressure, and dietary habits of adolescents and children descended from hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2004;82:143-6.

Uehara Y, Shin WS, Watanabe T, Osanai T, Miyazaki M, Kanase H. A hypertensive father, but not hypertensive mother, determines blood pressure in normotensive male offspring through body mass index. Journal of Human Hypertension. 1998;12:441-5.

Berg K. Gene-environment interaction; variability gene concept. In: Goldbourt U, de Faire U, Berg K eds. Genetic factors in coronary heart disease. Dortrecht Kluwer Academic Publishers. 1994:153-77.

Hassan MO, Al Kharusi W, Ziada A. Blood pressure and its reactivity in the offspring of first cousin hypertensive and first cousin normotensive parents: a preliminary report. J Hum Hypertens. 2001;15:869-72.

Jensen MT, Suadicani P, Hein HO, Gyntelberg F. Elevated resting heart rate, physical fitness and all‑cause mortality: a 16‑year follow‑up in the Copenhagen Male Study. Heart. 2013;99:882‑7.

Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Bashardoost N. Blood pressure in children of hypertensive and normotensive parents. Indian pediatrics. 2004(41): 73-7.

Havlik RJ, Garrison RJ, Feinleib M, Kannel WB, Castelli WP, McNamara PM. Blood pressure aggregation in families. Am J Epidemiol. 1979;110: 304-12.