DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20195888

Serum malondialdehyde and adiponectin in albuminuric kidney disease patients

Syed Liaquat Ali, Ghazala Panhwar, Shahid Zafar, Syed Naqeeb Ali, Mohammad Yousuf Khoso, Aziza Khanam, Momina Naseer

Abstract


Background: Diabetes, hypertension, oxidative stress, obesity, adipocytokine dysfunction, and dyslipidemia are causative factors in development of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Adiponectin secreted from adipose tissue, has Reno protective effect against development of albuminuria in animal studies. The previous studies investigated the relationship between serum adiponectin level and urinary albuminuria in kidney disease patients, but the results are conflicting.

Methods: The pre diagnosed kidney disease patients were divided into microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria groups, while control subjects were called as normoal buminuria group. The pre diagnosed adult kidney disease patients of both genders with age matching control subjects with no known comorbidity were included in the study. Whereas pregnant female patients and the patients with comorbidity were excluded from the study. The demographic data and the anthropometric data of control and kidney patients were recorded. The blood was analyzed for Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c), electrolytes, glucose, calcium, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine adiponectin and malondialdehyde. The Urine was analyzed for Creatinine and albuminuria. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated.

Results: The blood pressure, blood urea, creatinine, glycated hemoglobin, malondialdehyde, adiponectin levels were higher in albuminuric kidney patients as compared to normal control subjects. The mean glomerular filtration rate was lowest in macroalbuminuric patients as compared to micro and normoalbuminuric patients. The serum adiponectin and serum malondialdehyde both showed positive correlation with serum creatinine, and with albuminuria/urinary creatinine ratio.

Conclusions: The study concludes that, positive correlation of serum malondialdehyde with adiponectin and albuminuria.


Keywords


Adiponectin, Albuminuria, Kidney disease, Malondialdehyde, Oxidative stress

Full Text:

PDF

References


Sweiss N, Sharma K. Adiponectin effects on the kidney. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 28:71-9.

Habibi J, Hayden MR, Sowers JR, Pulakat L, Tilmon RD, Manrique C, et al. Nebivolol attenuates redox-sensitive glomerular and tubular mediated proteinuria in obese rats. Endocrinol. 2010 Dec 22;152(2):659-68.

Pupim LB, Himmelfarb J, McMonagle E, Shyr Y, Ikizler TA. Influence of initiation of maintenance hemodialysis on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Kidney Inter. 2004 Jun 1;65(6):2371-9.

Susztak K, Raff AC, Schiffer M, Böttinger EP. Glucose-induced reactive oxygen species cause apoptosis of podocytes and podocyte depletion at the onset of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 2006 Jan 1;55(1):225-33.

Komaba H, Igaki N, Goto S, Yokota K, Doi H, Takemoto T, et al. Increased serum high-molecular-weight complex of adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients with impaired renal function. Am J Nephrol. 2006;26(5):476-82.

Tormos KV, Anso E, Hamanaka RB, Eisenbart J, Joseph J, Kalyanaraman B, et al. Mitochondrial complex III ROS regulate adipocyte differentiation. Cell Metab. 2011 Oct 5;14(4):537-44.

Cui R, Gao M, Qu S, Liu D. Overexpression of superoxide dismutase 3 gene blocks high-fat diet-induced obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. Gene Therapy. 2014 Sep;21(9):840.

Barazzoni R, Bernardi A, Biasia F, Semolic A, Bosutti A, Mucci M, et al. Low fat adiponectin expression is associated with oxidative stress in nondiabetic humans with chronic kidney disease-impact on plasma adiponectin concentration. Am J Physiol-Regul, Integrative Comp Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):R47-54.

Sharma K. Obesity, oxidative stress, and fibrosis in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2014; 4:113-17.

Ohashi K, Iwatani H, Kihara S, Nakagawa Y, Komura N, Fujita K, et al. Exacerbation of albuminuria and renal fibrosis in subtotal renal ablation model of adiponectin-knockout mice. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, Vascular Biol. 2007 Sep 1;27(9):1910-7.

Nakamaki S, Satoh H, Kudoh A, Hayashi Y, Hirai H, Watanabe T. Adiponectin reduces proteinuria in strepozotocin- induced diabetic wistar rats. Exp Biol Med. 2011; 72:1367-73.

Sharma K, Ramachandra Rao S, Qiu G, Usui HK, Zhu Y, Dunn SR, et al. Adiponectin regulates albuminuria and podocyte function in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008 May 1;118(5):1645-56.

Kazory A, Ross EA. Anemia: the point of convergence or divergence for kidney disease and heart failure?. J Am College Cardiol. 2009 Feb 24;53(8):639-47.

Sodré FL, Costa JC, Lima JC. Avaliação da função e da lesão renal: um desafio laboratorial. J Brasileiro Patol Med Lab. 2007;43(5):329-37.

Sarabandi A, Manafi Shabestari R, Farshi Y, Tabibian S, Dorgalaleh A, Esmaeili Reykande S, et al. Uremia Effect on White Blood Cell Count in Patients with Renal Failure. Inter J Med Lab. 2015 May 15;2(1):21-4.

Stępień M, Stępień A, Wlazeł RN, Paradowski M, Banach M, Rysz M, et al. Obesity indices and adipokines in non-diabetic obese patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease. Medical science monitor: Int Med J Exper Clin Res. 2013;19:1063.

De Boer IH, Katz R, Chonchol M, Ix JH, Sarnak MJ, Shlipak MG, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and change in estimated glomerular filtration rate. Clin J Am Soci Nephrol. 2011 Sep 1;6(9):2141-9.

Janmaat CJ, Van Diepen M, Gasparini A, Evans M, Qureshi AR, Ärnlöv J, et al. Lower serum calcium is independently associated with CKD progression. Sci Reports. 2018 Mar 26;8(1):5148.

Gallant KM, Spiegel DM. Calcium balance in chronic kidney disease. Curr Osteop Reports. 2017 Jun 1;15(3):214-21.

Boaz M, Matas Z, Biro A, Katzir ZE, Green M, Fainaru M, et al. Serum malondialdehyde and prevalent cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1999 Sep 1;56(3):1078-83.

Satoh M. Endothelial dysfunction as an underlying pathophysiological condition of chronic kidney disease. Clin Exper Nephrol. 2012 Aug 1;16(4):518-21.

Hermans MM, Henry RM, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Heine RJ, Stehouwer CD. Albuminuria, but not estimated glomerular filtration rate, is associated with maladaptive arterial remodeling: the Hoorn Study. J Hyper. 2008 Apr 1;26(4):791-7.

Miyamoto S, Sharma K. Adipokines protecting CKD. Nephrol Dialy Transplant. 2013 Nov 1;28(4):iv15-22.

Ruiz-Hurtado G, Condezo-Hoyos L, Pulido-Olmo H, Aranguez I, del Carmen Gónzalez M, Arribas S, et al. Development of albuminuria and enhancement of oxidative stress during chronic renin–angiotensin system suppression. J Hypert. 2014 Oct 1;32(10):2082-91.

Jin X, Chen J, Hu Z, Chan L, Wang Y. Genetic deficiency of adiponectin protects against acute kidney injury. Kidney Int. 2013 Apr 1;83(4):604-14.

Lim CC, Teo BW, Tai ES, Lim SC, Chan CM, Sethi S, et al. Elevated serum leptin, adiponectin and leptin to adiponectin ratio is associated with chronic kidney disease in Asian adults. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 20;10(3):e0122009.

Yilmaz MI, Saglam M, Quraishi AR, Carrero JJ, Caglar K, Eyileter T, et al. Endothelial dysfunction in Type-2 diabetes, with early diabetic nephropathy is associated with low circulating adiponection. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:1621–7.

Iwashima Y, Horio T, Kumada M, Suzuki Y, Kihara S, Rakugi H, et al. Adiponectin and renal function, and implication as a risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Dec 15;98(12):1603-8.

Marchlewska A, Stenvinkel P, Lindholm B, Danielsson A, Pecoits-Filho R, Lönnqvist F, et al. Reduced gene expression of adiponectin in fat tissue from patients with end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul 1;66(1):46-50.

Shen YY, Charlesworth JA, Kelly JJ, Loi KW, Peake PW. Up-regulation of adiponectin, its isoforms and receptors in end-stage kidney disease. Nephrol Dialysis Transplant. 2006 Sep 27;22(1):171-8.

Tsigalou C, Chalikias G, Kantartzi K, Tziakas D, Kampouromiti G, Vargemezis V, et al. Differential effect of baseline adiponectin on all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients depending on initial body mass index. Long-term follow-up data of 4.5 years. J Renal Nutr. 2013 Jan 1;23(1):45-56.

Kacso IM, Trifa AP, Popp RA, Kacso G. Association of 276G> T adiponectin gene polymorphism to plasma adiponectin and albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. Int Urol Nephrol. 2012 Dec 1;44(6):1771-7.

Cantarin MP, Waldman SA, Doria C, Frank AM, Maley WR, Ramirez CB, et al. The adipose tissue production of adiponectin is increased in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 2013 Mar 1;83(3):487-94.

Hayakawa K, Ohashi H, Yokoyama H, Yoshida G, Okada M, Minatoguchi S. Adiponectin is increased and correlated with the degree of proteinuria, but plasma leptin is not changed in patients with chronic glomerulonephritis. Nephrol. 2009 Apr;14(3):327-31.

Kamimura MA, Canziani ME, Sanches FR, Velludo CM, Carrero JJ, et al. Variations in adiponectin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: a prospective study of 12 months. J Bras Nefrol. 2012;34:259-65.

Kim HY, Bae EH, Ma SK, Chae DW, Choi KH, Kim YS, et al. Association of serum adiponectin level with albuminuria in chronic kidney disease patients. Clin Exper Nephrol. 2016 Jun 1;20(3):443-9.

Yenicesu M, Yilmaz MI, Caglar K, Sonmez A, Eyileten T, Acikel C, et al. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system increases plasma adiponectin levels in type-2 diabetic patients with proteinuria. Nephron Clin Pract. 2005;99(4):c115-21.

Panduru NM, Saraheimo M, Forsblom C, Thorn LM, Gordin D, Wadén J, et al. Urinary adiponectin is an independent predictor of progression to end-stage renal disease in patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care. 2015 May 1;38(5):883-90.

Christou GA, Kiortsis DN. The role of adiponectin in renal physiology and development of albuminuria. J Endocrinol. 2014 May 1;221(2):R49-61.

Fang F, Liu GC, Kim C, Yassa R, Zhou J, Scholey JW. Adiponectin attenuates angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress in renal tubular cells through AMPK and cAMP-Epac signal transduction pathways. Am J Physiol-Renal Physiol. 2013 Mar 27;304(11):F1366-74.