Reliability and validity of the Mizo-version of neck disability index for non-specific neck pain in the rural North-East Indian population
Keywords:Neck disability index, Neck pain, Reliability, Validity
Background: The Neck Disability Index (NDI) is an important self-assessment tool used extensively worldwide, in clinical practice with implications into scientific research fields. It is used to assess the extent of pain and levels of functional disability associated with neck pain. The NDI consists of 10 items where each item was scored from a scale of 0 to 5 giving the maximum score possible to 50. Though proven to be a reliable instrument in the English-speaking population, the NDI has never been validated and culturally adapted in the Mizo language among the rural north-east Indian region where English is not spoken as means of communication. The aim is to translate and cross culturally adapt the NDI into Mizo tawng (official language of Mizoram) with the objective of establishing reliability and validity of the M-NDI in patients with non-specific neck pain.
Methods: A total of 49 subjects participated voluntarily from the rural primary health care, Lunglei district, Mizoram. Subject having chronic non-specific neck pain lasting more than 3 months were included after taking a written formal consent.
Results: The internal consistency determined by Cronbach alpha, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) using the test-retest reliability showed a good and an excellent reliability respectively (α=0.82, ICC=0.97, 95% CI= 0.95-0.98). Construct validity was determined between the variables-Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and NDI by Pearson’s correlation coefficient and found to have a good correlation r=0.89 and significant difference at p<0.001.
Conclusions: The study results concluded the Mizo version of NDI to be easy to understand, reliable and valid instrument for measuring disability and functional limitations of daily activities in non-specific neck pain in the Mizo speaking population.
Haldeman S, Carroll L, Cassidy JD. Findings from the bone and joint decade 2000 to 2010 task force on neck pain and its associated disorders. J Occupat Environm Med. 2010 Apr 1;52(4):424-7.
Hoy DG, Protani M, De R, Buchbinder R. The epidemiology of neck pain. Best Practice and Res Clin Rheumatol. 2010;24:783-92.
Tsakitzidis G, Remmen R, Dankaerts W, Royen PV. Non-specific Neck Pain and Evidence-Based Practice. Eur Sci J. 2013;9:1857-7431.
Tachii R, Sen S, Arfath U. Short-term effect of sustained natural apophyseal glides on cervical joint position sense, pain and neck disability in patients with chronic neck pain. Int J Therapies Rehabil Res. 2015;4(5):244.
Binder A. Neck pain. Clin Evid. 2006;15:1654-75.
Pellicciari L, Bonetti F, Di Foggia D, Monesi M, Vercelli S. Patient-reported outcome measures for non-specific neck pain validated in the Italian-language: a systematic review. Archiv Phys. 2016 Dec;6(1):9.
Reeve BB, Wyrwich KW, Wu AW, Velikova G, Terwee CB, Snyder CF, et al. ISOQOL recommends minimum standards for patient-reported outcome measures used in patient-centered outcomes and comparative effectiveness research. Quality Life Res. 2013 Oct 1;22(8):1889-905.
Barrow JM, Khandhar PB. Research Ethics. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459281/. Accessed 22 June 2019.
Vernon H, Mior S. The Neck Disability Index: a study of reliability and validity. J Manipulat Physiol Therapeut. 1991.
Krebs EE, Carey TS, Weinberger M. Accuracy of the pain numeric rating scale as a screening test in primary care. J General Int Med. 2007 Oct 1;22(10):1453-8.
Shaheen AAM, Omar MTA, Vernon H. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the Arabic version of neck disability index in patients with neck pain. Spine. 2013;38(10):E609-15.
Beaton DE, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB. Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine. 2000 Dec 15;25(24):3186-91.
Cramer H, Lauche R, Langhorst J, Dobos GJ, Michalsen A. Validation of the German version of the Neck Disability Index (NDI). BMC Muscul Dis. 2014 Dec;15(1):91.
Trouli MN, Vernon HT, Kakavelakis KN, Antonopoulou MD, Paganas AN, Lionis CD. Translation of the Neck Disability Index and validation of the Greek version in a sample of neck pain patients. BMC muscul Dis. 2008 Dec;9(1):106.
Chiu TT, Lam TH, Hedley AJ. Subjective health measure used on Chinese patients with neck pain in Hong Kong. Spine. 2001 Sep 1;26(17):1884-9.
Farooq MN, Mohseni-Bandpei MA, Gilani SA, Hafeez A. Urdu version of the neck disability index: a reliability and validity study. BMC Muscul Dis. 2017 Dec;18(1):149.
Koo TK, Li MY. A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. J Chiropract Med. 2016 Jun 1;15(2):155-63.
Cronbach LJ, Meehl PE. Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychol Bull. 1955 Jul;52(4):281.