Published: 2020-02-26

Clinical and microbiological profile of type 2 diabetic patients with urinary tract infections

Sandinti Deepa, V. Lakshmaiah, Arvind Natarajan, Prabhakar K., Raveesha A.


Background: Diabetes Mellitus is reported to increase the risk of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) with higher probability of drug resistant organisms. Understanding the burden, microbiological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern is vital for effective prevention and management. To assess the microbiological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Urinary Tract infections among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Methods: The study was A prospective observational study done on 117 type 2 diabetic subjects aged above 18 years presenting with symptoms of UTI in a tertiary care hospital Urine was analyzed for urine routine examination, culture and antibiotic sensitivity using standard testing methods on a midstream urine sample. Descriptive analysis was carried out by mean and standard deviation for quantitative variables, frequency and proportion for categorical variables.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 57 years. Females constituted 62.39% of participants. Burning micturition (52.99%) was the most common presenting symptom. The prevalence of culture positive UTI was 51.28%. Among gram-negative bacilli, Escherichia coli (20.51%), Klebsiella (6.85%) dominated the culture reports. Enterococcus (4.27%) and Staphylococcus aureus (2.6%) were the common gram-positive organisms isolated.  Meropenem was the most effective antibiotic against E. coli (87.5%) and Klebsiella (95%) Vancomycin had 100% sensitivity against Enterococci and S. aureus.

Conclusions: More than half of diabetic patients presenting with symptoms of UTI had culture positive UTI, predominantly caused by gram negative organisms. There is a need for comparative studies of Diabetes and controls to explore the key differences in the pattern of UTI.


Antibiotic sensitivity, Culture positive, Drug resistance, Escherichia coli, Microbiological profile, Urinary tract infection

Full Text:



Cho N, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Huang Y, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Ohlrogge AW, et al. IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045. Diabe Res Clin Pract. 2018 Apr 1;138:271-81.

Ogurtsova K, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Huang Y, Linnenkamp U, Guariguata L, Cho NH, et al. IDF Diabetes Atlas: Global estimates for the prevalence of diabetes for 2015 and 2040. Diabe Res Clin Pract. 2017 Jun 1;128:40-50.

Anjana RM, Deepa M, Pradeepa R, Mahanta J, Narain K, Das HK, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR–INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study. Lancet Diabe Endocrinol. 2017 Aug 1;5(8):585-96.

Nitzan O, Elias M, Chazan B, Saliba W. Urinary tract infections in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: review of prevalence, diagnosis, and management. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2015;8:129-36.

Zasloff M. Why are diabetics prone to kidney infections?. J Clin Invest. 2018 Dec 3;128(12):5213-5.

Zhou T, Hu Z, Yang S, Sun L, Yu Z, Wang G. Role of adaptive and innate immunity in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabe Res. 2018;2018.

Abraham SN, Miao Y. The nature of immune responses to urinary tract infections. Nature Revi Immunol. 2015 Oct;15(10):655.

Aswani SM, Chandrashekar UK, Shivashankara KN, Pruthvi BC. Clinical profile of urinary tract infections in diabetics and non-diabetics. Austral Med J. 2014;7(1):29.

Al-Asoufi A, Khlaifat A, Tarawneh AA, Alsharafa K, Al-Limoun M, Khleifat K. Bacterial Quality of Urinary Tract Infections in Diabetic and Non Diabetics of the Population of Ma'an Province, Jordan. Pak J Biol Sci. 2017;20(4):179-88.

Al-Rubeaan KA, Moharram O, Al-Naqeb D, Hassan A, Rafiullah MR. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and risk factors among Saudi patients with diabetes. World J Urol. 2013;31(3):573-8.

Hamdan HZ, Kubbara E, Adam AM, Hassan OS, Suliman SO, Adam I. Urinary tract infections and antimicrobial sensitivity among diabetic patients at Khartoum, Sudan. Annal Clin Microbiol Antimicro. 2015 Dec;14(1):26.

Simkhada R. Urinary tract infection and antibiotic sensitivity pattern among diabetics. Nepal Med Coll J. 2013 Mar;15(1):1-4.

Worku S, Derbie A, Sinishaw MA, Adem Y, Biadglegne F. Prevalence of Bacteriuria and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Attending at Debre Tabor Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Int J Microbiol. 2017;2017:5809494.

Lee JH, Kim SW, Yoon BI, Ha U, Sohn DW, Cho YH. Factors that affect nosocomial catheter-associated urinary tract infection in intensive care units: 2-year experience at a single center. Korean J Urol. 2013 Jan 1;54(1):59-65.

Datta P, Rani H, Chauhan R, Gombar S, Chander J. Health-care-associated infections: Risk factors and epidemiology from an intensive care unit in Northern India. Ind J Anaesth. 2014 Jan;58(1):30.

Sharma S, Govind B, Naidu SK, Kinjarapu S, Rasool M. Clinical and Laboratory Profile of Urinary Tract Infections in Type 2 Diabetics Aged over 60 Years. J Clin Diag Res: JCDR. 2017 Apr;11(4):OC25.