Published: 2016-12-30

Microbiological profile of hospital acquired blood stream infections in seriously ill medical patients admitted in tertiary care hospital

Preeti Raheja, Antarikshdeep ., Uma Chaudhary


Background: Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are those which are acquired in hospital either due to any intervention or directly through various routes of entry into the body. Nosocomial infection not only adds to functional disability to patients but also increases associated cost of treatment. Major categories of HAIs include pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), blood stream infections (BSIs), and surgical site infections (SSIs).

Methods: The study was conducted to know the incidence of blood stream infections. The patients who developed infections after 48 hours of admission in the ward were included in the study. Blood cultures were performed. A total of 125 seriously ill patients admitted in medicine ward were studied prospectively.

Results: Out of a total of 125 patients, 10 (8%) patients developed BSIs. Gram negative isolates Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most commonly isolated organisms from cases of BSIs. Most of the isolated organisms were susceptible to ticarcillin clavulanic acid.

Conclusions: HAI incidence was high in this study. Prevention programs in future should focus on patients with longer length of stay, invasive devices, and injudicious use of antibiotics to contain the incidence of HAIs.



Hospital acquired infections, Bloodstream infection, Gram-negative bacteria, Antimicrobial agents

Full Text:



Louis V, Bihari MB, Suter P. The prevalence of nosocomial infections in intensive care units in Europe. European Prevalence of infection in Intensive Care (EPIC) study. JAMA. 1995;274:639-44.

Bereket W, Kannan S, Getenet B, Hemlata K, Solomon A, Zyenudin A, et al. Update on nosocomial infections. Euro Rev Med PharmacolSci. 2012;16:1039-44.

Tikhomirov E. WHO Programme for the Control of Hospital Infections. Chemiotherapia. 1987;3:148-51.

Perl TM, Chotani R, Agawala R. Infection control and prevention in bone marrow transplant patients. In: MayhallCG,Hospital epidemiology and infection control. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams &Willkins, 1999;803-44.

Garner JS, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Horan TC, Hughes JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections. Am J Infect Control. 1988;16:28-40.

Inweregbu K, Dave J, Pittard A. Continuing education in anaesthesia, criticalcare and pain. Oxford journal. 2013;5:14-7.

Warren JW. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2001;17:299-303.

Kirkland KB, Briggs JP, Trivette SL, Wilkinson WE, Sexton DJ. The impact of surgical-site infections in the 1990’s: attributable mortality, excess length of hospitalization and extra costs. Infect ContrHospEpidemiol. 1999;20:725-30.

Saint S, Chenoweth CE. Biofilms and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2003;17:411-32.

Richet H, Hubert B, Nitemberg G. Prospective multicentre study of vascular-catheter-related complications and risk factors for positive central-catheter culture in intensive care unit patients. J ClinMicrobiol. 1990;28:2520-55.

Rojo D, Pinedo A, Clavijo E, Garcia RA, Garcia V. Analysis of risk factors associated with bacteraemias. J Hosp Infect. 1999;42:135-41.

Emori TG, Gaynes RP. An Overview of nosocomial infections, including the role of the microbiology laboratory. ClinMicrobiol Rev. 1993;6:428-42.

National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Nosocomial infection rates for interhospital comparison: limitation and possible solutions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemol. 1991;12:609-21.

Taneja N, Chari P, Singh M, Singh G, Biswal M, Sharma M. Evolution of bacterial flora in burn wounds: key role of environmental disinfection in control of infection. Int J Burn Trauma. 2013;3:102-7.

Craven DE, Stegar KA, Barber TW. Preventing nosocomial pneumonia: state of the art and perspectives for the 1900s. Am J Med. 1991;91:44S-53S.

Marra AR, Camargo LFA, Pignatari ACC, Sukiennik T, Behar PRP, Medeiros EAS, et al. Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections in Brazilian Hospitals: Analysis of 2,563 Cases from a Prospective Nationwide Surveillance Study. J ClinMicrobiol. 2011;49:1866-71.

Mythri H, Kashinath KR. Nosocomial infections in patients admitted in intensive care unit of a Tertiary Health Center, India. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 2014;4:738-41.

Pratham R, Manmohan S, Vipin R. A retrospective study of nosocomial infections in patients admitted in M.I.C.U. Indian J Pharm Pract. 2011;4:62‑5.

Ginawi I, Saleem M, Sigh M, Vaish AK, Ahmad I, Srivastava VK et al. Hospital Acquired Infections Among Patients Admitted in the Medical and Surgical Wards of a Non-Teaching Secondary Care Hospital in Northern India. Abdullah J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8:81-3.

Naidu K, Nabose I, Ram S, Viney K, Graham SM, Bissell K. A Descriptive Study of Nosocomial Infections in an Adult Intensive Care Unit in Fiji: 2011-12. J of Tropical Medicine. 2014;545:160-4.

Gyssens IC. Preventing postoperative infections: current treatment recommendations. Drugs. 1999;57:175-85.

Biglari S, Hanafiah A, Ramli R, Rahman MM, Khaithir TMN. Clinico-epidemiological nature and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Acinetobacter species. Pak J Med Sci. 2013;29:469-73.

Ghadiri H, Vaez H, Khosravi S, Soleymani E. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial strains isolated from patients with hospital acquired bloodstream and urinary tract infections. Critical care and research. 2012;10:1-6.