Prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetic status in hypertensive patients
Keywords:Pre-diabetes, Impaired glucose tolerance, Impaired fasting glucose, Diabetes, Hypertension
Background: Diabetes and hypertension are known to coexist in patients. The prevalence of hypertension is 1.5-2.0 times more in those with diabetes than in those without diabetes, whereas almost one-third of the patients with hypertension develop diabetes later. In this study, pre-diabetes and diabetes in hypertensive patients and on coexisting risk factors were studied.
Methods: After institutional ethics committee approval diagnosed hypertension cases on treatment who gave written informed consent were studied for duration of disease, drug therapy, family history, manifestations of co-morbidities and investigated for fasting and post-prandial blood sugar, oral glucose tolerance, lipid profile, serum creatinine, uric acid and SGPT.
Results: Out of 100 recruited hypertensive patients 52 were females and 48 were males. 43% were diagnosed pre-diabetics where as 16% were diabetics.
Conclusions: Prediabetes and diabetes are highly prevalent among individuals with known cases of hypertension.
World Health Organization: Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. December 2010. www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GlobalHealthRisks_report_full.pdf (accessed June 18, 2011).
Govindarajan G, Sowers JR, Stump Cs. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus. European Cardiovascular Disease. 2006:2(1):1-7.
Anjana R, Pradeepa R, Deepa M, Datta M, Sudha V, Unnikrishnan R, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) in urban and rural India: Phase I results of the Indian Council of Medical Research-India DIABetes (ICMR-INDIAB) study. Diabetologia. 2011;54(12):3022-7.
Shrestha UK, Singh DL, Bhattarai MD. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes defined buy fasting and 2 hour plasma glucose criteria in urban Nepal. Diabetes Medicine. 2006;23(10):1130-5.
Shaw J, Sicree R, Zimmet P. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res ClinPract. 2010;87:4-14.
Mills JD, Grant PJ. Insulin resistance homeostasis factors and cardiovascular risk. Br J Diabetes Vasc Dis. 2000;2(1):19-26.
Gupta R, Gupta VP. Hypertension epidemiology in India: lessons from Jaipur Heart Watch. Curr Sci 2009;97:349-55.
Kotcher T. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 17th Edition. Vol-II; pg. no. 1549.
Mohan V, Deepa R, Rani SS, Premalatha G, Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS No.5). Prevalence of coronary artery disease and its relationship to lipids in a selected population in South India: the Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS No. 5). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38:682-7.
Sahay BK. API-ICP guidelines on diabetes 2007. J Assoc Physicians India. 2007;55:1-50.
Williams G. Hypertension in diabetes. In: Pickup J, Williams G, eds. Textbook of Diabetes. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications. 1991:719-32.
Parving H, Andersen A, Smidt UM, Christiansen JS, Oxenbøll B, Svendsen PA. Diabetic nephropathy and arterial hypertension. The effect of antihypertensive treatment. Diabetologia. 1983;24:10-2.
Diabetes Prevention Programme Research Group. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2000;346(6):393-463.
Chiasson JL, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Josse RG, Karasik A, Laakso M. The STOP NIDDM Trail: an international study on the efficacy of alpha-glucosidase inhibitor to prevent type 2 diabetes in a population with impaired glucose tolerance: rationale, design and preliminary screening data. Study to Prevent Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(10):1720-5.
Hiltunen L, Laara E, Keinane-Kuikaaniemi S. Changes in glucose tolerance during a three year’s follow-up in an elderly population. Public Health. 1999;13(2):181-4.
Chen K, High L. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Benghu Islets, Taiwan: evidence of a rapidly emerging epidemic. Diab Res ClinPract. 2009;44(1):59-69.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care indiabetes - 2008. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(Suppl 1):S12-54.
Rolka DR, Burrows NR, Li Y, Geiss LS. Self-reported prediabetes and risk-reduction activities-US-2006. JAMA. 2009;301(6):591-3.