Evaluation of serum sex hormones and CD4+ count among HIV patients on HAART, HAART naive patients and apparently healthy subjects in Sokoto, Nigeria

Armiya’u Ahmed Yelwa, Abdallah Suleiman Mainasara, Shehu Abubakar Akuyam, Balarabe Isah Adamu, Zayyanu Usman Umar, Sharafudeen Dahiru Abubakar, Yahaya Muhammad, Solomon Matthias Gamde, Aisha Abdulazziz


Background: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic disease associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which progressively induces depletion of CD4+ T cells, and increased vulnerability to opportunistic infections. Previous reported studies associated HIV-infected men with sexual dysfunction; hypogonadism is the most common endocrinological disorders. Its prevalence remains poorly defined and widely ranging from different studies.

Methods: This study evaluated a total of 135 serum sex hormones (testosterone, estrogen, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone) and its correlation with CD4+ counts among HIV patients on HAART, HAART naïve patients and negative control subjects (n=45). CD4+ cell counts were estimated using standard flow cytometry method and serum sex hormones by competitive enzyme immunoassay technique.

Results: There were significantly lower testosterone and CD4+ levels (p<0.05) among HIV positive HAART naïve men compared to negative control. LH and FSH indicated significant increased (p<0.05) among HIV positive men on HAART.

Conclusions: Antiretroviral therapy improves sexual functions in males infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Hence, further study to evaluate its effects on other sexual behaviors.


Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome, Antiretroviral therapy, Antiretroviral naïve patients, Sex hormones

Full Text:



United Nation intervention for AIDS/HIV. AIDS info. Access 18 December 2019.

PEPFAR. Annual Report to Congress, 2019;1-106.

Aggarwal J, Taneja RS, Gupta PK, Wali M, Chitkara A, Jamal A. Sex hormone Profile in Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected men and its correlation with CD4 cell counts. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2018;22:328-34.

Sinha U, Sengupta N, Mukhopadhyay P, Roy KS. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy. Indian J. Endocrinol Metab. 2011;15:251 60.

Mylonakis E, Koutkia P, Grinspoon S. Diagnosis and treatment of androgen deficiency in human immunodeficiency virus infected men and women. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:857 64.

Dobs AS, Dempsey MA, Ladenson PW, Polk BF. Endocrine disorders in men infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Med. 1988;84:611 6.

World Health Organization. Antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infections in infants: recommendations for a public health approach 2010. Accessed on 10 June 2015.

Panos G, Samonis G, Alexiou VG, Kavarnou GA, Charatsis G, Falagas ME. Mortality and morbidity of HIV infected patients receiving HAART: a cohort study. Current HIV Research. 2008;6(3):257-60.

Sokoto State Business Directory. A Publication of the Commerce Department, Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism, Sokoto; 2007:14-18.

10. United Nations Population Fund. Annual report. 605 Third Avenue New York, NY, 10158; 2013:1-56.

Cochran WG. Sampling techniques. 3rd edition. New York, John Wiley and Sons; 1977:122.

National Agency for the Control of Aids. National health reproductive survey. Available at Assessed on 23rd March 2017.

Cassens U, Golde W, Kuling G, Schlenke P, Lehman LG, Traore Y, et al. Simplified volumeric flow cytometry allows feasible and accurate 55 determination of cd4 t-lymphocytes in immunodeficient patients worldwide. Antiviral Therapy. 2004;9:395-405.

Tietz NW. Clinical guide to laboratory tests. Testosterone kits book. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co.; 1995:186-188.

Horton R, Tait JF. Androstenedione production and Interconversion rates measured in peripheral blood and studies on the possible site of conversion to testosterone. J Clinic Investi. 1996;45:310-03.

Abraham GE. The application of natural steroid radioimmunoassay to gynecologic endocrinology. Clinic Endocrinol. 1981;33:475-529.

Kosasa TS. Measurement of human luteinizing hormone. J Reprod Med. 1981;26:201-6.

Wennink JM, Delemarre VW, Schoemaker HA, Schoemaker R. Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone secretion patterns in girls throughout puberty measured using highly sensitive immune radiometric assay. Clinic Endocrinol. 1990;33:333-44.

Goldmeier LH, Mackie D, Scullard NE. Antiretroviral therapy is associated with sexual dysfunction and with increased serum estradiol levels in men. Int J STD AIDS. 2004;15:234-7.

Crum NF, Furtek KJ, Olson PE, Amling CL, Wallace MR. A review of hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction among HIV-infected men during the pre- and post-HAART eras: diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2005;19:655-71.

Tindall B, Forde S, Goldstein D, Ross MW, Cooper DA. Sexual dysfunction in advanced HIV disease. AIDS Care. 2004;6:105-7.