Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses among hemodialysis patients in Southern West Bank, Palestine
Keywords:Hemodialysis, HD, CKD, HBV, HCV, HBsAg, GFR, DM, NSAIDs, ESRD, Renal
Background: In addition to severe renal impotence and decline of immune status, the high prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus’s infection represents one of the most critical clinical problems that are implicated in the progression of severe complication among hemodialysis patients. This study was performed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses among hemodialysis patients and to recognize the pattern of chronic disease that will access to the renal failure.
Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data were collected from 252 hemodialysis patients for the presence of HBsAg, anti-HCV antibody, and the primary chronic disease that causes renal failure, in March 2013 from three governmental hospitals in southern West Bank in Palestine.
Results: From 252 HD patients, 59% were male and 41% were female. 78% of them ranged between 15 and 65 years. 6.7% of all patients were HBsAg positive and 8.7% were anti-HCV antibodies are positive. Diabetes mellitus (33.7%), hypertension (23.7%), and chronic nephritis (6.0%), represent the most known primary chronic diseases that causes end stage renal disease.
Conclusions: The role of the chronic diseases in accession to the renal failure, and the high prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infection among hemodialysis patients compared to the normal healthy population indicate a causative relation between hemodialysis and hepatitis virus transmission.
Busek SU, Babá EH, Filho HAT, Pimenta L, Salomão A, Corrêa-Oliveira R, et al. Hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infection in different hemodialysis units in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97(6):775-8.
Etemadi J, Somi MH, Ardalan MR, Hashemi SS, Soltani GG, Shoja MM. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients in Tabriz: a multicenter report. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2012;23(3):609-13.
Karkar A, Abdelrahman M, Ghacha R, Malik TQ. Prevention of viral transmission in HD units: the value of isolation. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2006;17(2):183-8.
Warady BA, Chadha V. Chronic kidney disease in children: the global perspective. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007;22(12):1999-2009.
Monsalve-Castillo F, Gómez-Gamboa L, Chacín-Bonilla L, Porto-Espinoza L, Costa-León L. Hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Maracaibo, Venezuela. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2012;4(1):53-5.
Telaku S, Fejza H, Elezi Y, Teuta Bicaj T. Hepatitis B and C in dialysis units in Kosova. Virol J. 2009;6:72.
El-kader YEOA, Elmanama AA, Ayesh BM. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C viruses among haemodialysis patients in Gaza strip, Palestine. Virol J. 2010;7:210.
Jeulin H, Velay A, Murray J, Schvoerer E. Clinical impact of hepatitis B and C virus envelope glycoproteins. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(5):654-64.
Kondo Y, Ninomiya M, Kakazu E, Kimura O, Shimosegawa T. Hepatitis B surface antigen could contribute to the immunopathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection. ISRN Gastroenterol. 2013;2013:p. 935295.
Lopez-Serrano P, Perez-Calle JL, Sanchez-Tembleque MD. Hepatitis B and inflammatory bowel disease: Role of antiviral prophylaxis. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(9):1342-8.
Gupte S. The short Testbook of Medical Microbiology 8th edition ed. Vol. 5. 2002, New Delhi India Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd. 490.
Levinson W. Review of medical microbiology and immunology. 10th edition ed. 2008, Asia McGraw-Hill Education Company 672.
Zuckerman AJ. Hepatitis Viruses, in Medical Microbiology, S. Baron, Editor. 1996: Galveston (TX).
Services, d.o.h.a.h. Interpretation of Hepatitis B Serologic Test Results I.o.H.B.S.T. Results, Editor. 2005, department of health and human services center for diease control and prevention. p. pdf.
Locarnini S. Molecular virology of hepatitis B virus. Semin Liver Dis. 2004;24 Suppl 1:3-10.
Karoney MJ, Siika AM. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Africa: a review. Pan Afr Med J. 2013;14:44.
Lieberman J, Sarnow P. Micromanaging Hepatitis C Virus. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(18):1741-3.
Naggie S. Management of hepatitis C virus infection: the basics. Top Antivir Med. 2012;20(5):154-61.
Services, D.o.H.H., Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection Testing for Diagnosis, H.C.V.H.I.T.f. Diagnosis, Editor. 2005, Department of HealtH & Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Carreno V, Bartolomé J, Castillo I, Quiroga JA. New perspectives in occult hepatitis C virus infection. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(23):2887-94.
Shiraishi FG, Belik FS,1 e Silva VVO, Martin LC, Hueb JC, Gonçalves RS, et al. Inflammation, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease: role of aerobic capacity. Exp Diabetes Res, 2012;2012:750286.
Fink HA, Ishani A, Taylor BC, Greer NL, MacDonald R, Rossini D, et al. Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 1-3: Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment. 2012: Rockville (MD).
Tedla FM, Brar A, Browne R, Brown C. Hypertension in chronic kidney disease: navigating the evidence. Int J Hypertens, 2011;2011:132405.
Snyder S, Pendergraph B. Detection and evaluation of chronic kidney disease. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72(9):1723-32.
Levey AS, Coresh J, Balk E, Kausz AT, Levin A, Steffes MW, et al. National Kidney Foundation practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139(2):137-47.
Burrows NR. NSAIDs and Chronic Kidney Disease, Kidney, Editor. CDC. p. 2.
Mohamed WZ. Prevention of hepatitis C virus in hemodialysis patients: five years experience from a single center. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2010;21(3):548-54.
Shiha AM. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus DNA Among Blood Donors in Nablus- West Bank, in Master of Public Health. 2011, An-Najah National University.
Al Hijazat M, Ajlouni YM. Hepatitis B infection among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis at the Royal Medical Services in Jordan. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2008;19(2):260-7.
Astal Z, Dhair M. Serologic evaluation of hepatitis B and C among health care workers in Southern Gaza Strip (Palestine). In Journal of Islamic University of Gaza. Islamic University of Gaza. 2004;12(1):153-64.
Moukeh G, Yacoub R, Fahdi F, Rastam S, Albitar S. Epidemiology of hemodialysis patients in Aleppo city. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl, 2009;20(1): 140-6.
Rajapurkar M, John, G, Kirpalani A, Abraham G, Agarwal SK, Almeida AF, et al. What do we know about chronic kidney disease in India: first report of the Indian CKD registry. BMC nephrology. 2012;13:10. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-13-10.
Elamin S, Abu-Aisha H. Prevention of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus transmission in hemodialysis centers: review of current international recommendations. Arab J Nephrol Transplant. 2011;4(1):35-47.