Prevalence and risk factors of varicose veins, skin trophic changes, and venous symptoms among northern Indian population

Vipul Agarwal, Sarina Agarwal, Abhishek Singh, Parth Nathwani, Pooja Goyal, Shewtank Goel


Background: Chronic venous disorders are an important cause of disease and disability worldwide. These disorders have substantial medical and economic consequences. The cost to society is also enormous. Despite the gravity of the problem, little effort has been made to meritoriously prevent such chronic disorders. Aim- This study was planned to analyze and ascertain prevalence and risk factors of varicose veins, skin trophic changes, and venous symptoms among northern Indian population.

Methods: The present study was undertaken among the residents of adopted population by a tertiary care center of Uttar Pradesh. Sampling frame was selected from four villages falling within a radius of two kilometers from the tertiary care health center. Inclusion criteria were a person aged 18 years or older, falling in the sampling frame and willing to participate in the study. A total of 1012 eligible study subjects were contacted and interviewed. Detailed enquiry about venous symptoms, skin trophic changes, history of thromboembolic disease, family history of varicose veins, exercise activities, occupation etc was also made. Senior resident of Surgery department clinically evaluated the presence of varicose veins, edema and skin trophic changes in the legs.

Results: 46.7% of females and 27.8% of males were found to be having varicose veins whereas 49.3% of females and 18.9% of males were having venous symptoms. Skin trophic changes were observed in 18.9% females and 5.2% of males respectively. History of varicose veins in first-degree relatives (OR 3.85, p=0.046) and age (OR 1.06, p=0.021) were significant important risk factors for varicose veins in both sexes. Age (OR 1.14, p=0.002), history of thromboembolic disease (OR 3.95, p=0.063) and pitting edema (OR 7.42, p=0.016) were three significant important risk factors for skin trophic changes among subjects with varicose veins.

Conclusions: High prevalence of chronic venous disorders of the lower limbs was observed in residents of studied region. Results of this study calls for planning and initiation of serious efforts to prevent such chronic disorders.



Prevalence, Risk factors, Varicose veins, Skin trophic changes, Venous symptoms

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