Evaluation of vitamin-D status in premenopausal and postmenopausal type-2 diabetic women and its relation to glycemic control

Shivwani D. Kotwal, Anjali N. Bhat, Sabita Yograj, Suresh Kotwal


Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a public health problem around the world. In 2008, it was estimated that 1 billion persons present with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Vitamin D is obtained through exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) sunlight as well as nutritional sources. Despite the high UVB sunlight exposure in tropical countries, studies suggest Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent. Vitamin D is believed to help improve the body’s sensitivity to insulin, the hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar levels, thus reducing the risk of insulin resistance, which is often a precursor to Type-2 diabetes. Aim and objective of the study was to evaluate and compare the Vitamin-D levels in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Type-2 Diabetic women and to evaluate if their Vitamin-D levels have any co-relation with their glycemic control.

Methods: The study was conducted in Government Medical College Jammu and its associated hospital on 60 Type-2 Diabetic women, 30 premenopausal and 30 postmenopausal. Vitamin-D [25(OH) Vitamin D] levels were assessed by Chemiluminescence method in the Biochemistry Lab. of Govt. Medical College Jammu. Blood sugar levels, both fasting and postprandial, were assessed by Glucose oxidase-peroxidase method in the same Lab.

HbA1C was assessed by HPLC [High Performance Liquid Chromatography] assay.

Results: Vitamin-D deficiency [Vitamin-D levels <20 ng/ml] was seen in 16.67% of premenopausal type-2 diabetics and in 36.67% postmenopausal type-2 diabetics. This was not related to the glycemic control as HbA1C was increased in both the groups.

Conclusions: Vitamin-D deficiency is more prevalent in postmenopausal Type-2 diabetics, as compared to premenopausal type-2 diabetics.


Menopause, Type-2 diabetes mellitus, Vitamin-D

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