DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20201489

Histopathology of bladder carcinomas: an eight year retrospective study at Lagos state university teaching hospital, Ikeja, Nigeria

Daniel A. Sanni, Oluwaseun O. William, Sunday S. Soyemi, Abimbola A. Abolarinwa, Abiodun O. Popoola

Abstract


Background: This study was undertaken to evaluate the histological types, frequency, age and sex distribution of bladder carcinoma in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Lagos state. This study aims to classify bladder carcinoma in this centre according to the World Health Organisation/ International Society of Urological Pathology.

Methods: An eight-year retrospective study of all bladder carcinomas specimens that were sent to the department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, LASUTH between 1st January, 2011 and 31st December, 2018 was done. Relevant data consisting of the age and sex distributions as well as histopathological types were extracted from the departmental information system and filed documents. The data was analysed using the IBM-SPSS version 25.0.

Results: There were 87 cases of bladder tumours, out of which 55 (63.2%) were bladder carcinomas. The mean age at diagnosis of bladder carcinomas was 56.9±13.9 years. Sex distribution has male to female ratio of 1: 1. Urothelial carcinoma predominates as the most common histological type.

Conclusions: Bladder carcinoma presents most frequently at the 5th decade of life, with a slight male preponderance.


Keywords


Age at diagnosis, Bladder carcinoma, Histological type

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;68:394-424.

Bray F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Zanetti R, et al. Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. Lyon: International Agency Res on Cancer. 2017;11.

Leal J, Luengo-Fernandez R, Sullivan R, Witjes JA. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union. Eur Urol. 2016;69:438-47.

Heyns CF, van der Merwe A. Bladder cancer in Africa. Can J Urol. 2008;15:3899-908.

Wong MCS, Fung FDH, Leung C, Cheung WWL, Goggins WB, Ng CF. The global epidemiology of bladder cancer: a joinpoint regression analysis of its incidence and mortality trends and projection. Sci Rep. 2018;8:1129.

Mahdavifar N, Ghoncheh M, Pakzad R, Momenimovahed Z, Salehiniya H. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Bladder Cancer and their Relationship with the Development Index in the world. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17:381-6.

Ochicha O, Alhassan S, Mohammed AZ, Edino ST, Nwokedi EE. Bladder cancer in Kano-a histopathological review. West Afr J Med. 2003;22:202-4.

Thomas JO, Onyemenen NT. Bladder carcinoma in Ibadan Nigeria: a changing trend? East Afr Med J. 1995;72:49-50.

Al-Ahmadie H. Overview of urinary bladder neoplasms. In: Diagnostic pathology Genitourinary. 2nd ed. Amirys Elsevier; 2016:329.

Attah EB, Nkposong EO. Schistosomiasis and carcinoma of the bladder: a critical appraisal of causal relationship. Trop Geogr Med. 1976;28:268-72.

Zhang X, Zhang Y. Bladder cancer and genetic mutations. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015;73:65-9.

Mapulanga V, Labib M, Bowa K. Pattern of bladder cancer at university teaching hospital, Lusaka, Zambia in the era of HIV epidemic. Med J Zambia. 2012;39:22-6.

Mandong BM, Iya D, Obekpa PO, Orkar KS. Urological tumours in Jos university teaching hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Niger J Surg Res. 2000;2:108-13.

Khalaf I, El-Mallah E, Elsotouhi I, Abu-Zeid H, Elmeligy A. Pathologic pattern of invasive bladder carcinoma: Impact of schistosomiasis. Afr J Urol. 2008;14:90-7.

Dadhania V, Czerniak B, Guo CC. Adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder. Am J Clin Exp Urol. 2015;3:51-63.

Choong NW1, Quevedo JF, Kaur JS. Cancer. Small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Mayo Clin Exper 2005;103:1172-8.

Lontos K, Tsagianni A, Msaouel P, Appleman LJ, Nasioudis D. Primary Urinary Tract Lymphoma: Rare but Aggressive. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:6989-95.

Lee TK, Miyamoto H, Osunkoya A, Guo C, Weiss S, Epstein J. Smooth muscle neoplasms of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic study of 51 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2010;34:502-9.

Ibrahim AG, Aliyu S. Bladder Cancer: A Ten-year Experience in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria. IJSER. 2015;6:1551-60.

Sule AA, Ochicha O, Ibrahim Y, Adam S, Abubakar A, Haruna MS. Update on Bladder Cancer in Kano, Northern Nigeria. Niger J Basic Clin Sci. 2017;14:26-9.

Takure AO, Odubanjo MO, Adebayo SA, Olusola O, Shithi OB, Okeke LI, et al. Histologic pattern of Bladder Cancers in Ibadan Southwest Nigeria. An update. JWACS 2015;5:17-40.

Forae GD, Ugiagbe EE, Mekoma DF. A descriptive study of bladder tumors in Benin city, Nigeria: An analysis of histopathological patterns. Saudi surg J. 2016;4:113-7.

Rambau PF, Chalya PL, Jackson K. Schistosomiasis and Urinary bladder cancer in NorthWestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 185 patients. Infec Agen Cancer 2013;8:19.

Bowa K, Malele C, Kachinba J, Manda E, Mapulanga, Mukosai S. A review of Bladder Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa. A different disease, with a Distinct Presentation, Assessment and Treatment. Ann Afr Med. 2018;17(3):99-105.

Schned AR, Andrew AS, Marsit CJ, Kelsey KT, Zens MS, Karagas MR. Histological classification and stage of newly diagnosed bladder cancer in a population - based study from the North eastern United states. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2008;42(3);237-42.

Danjanov I, Mileta G. Histopathology of Urinary Bladder Carcinoma: Less common variants. Srp Arh Celok hek. 2011;139:693-9.