DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20203431

Morphological evaluation of the humeral length and application as indicator of sexual dimorphism among Southern Nigerian children

Dayo R. Omotoso, Felix O. Akinshipe

Abstract


Background: This study was carried out to evaluate humeral length among children in Southern Nigeria and to describe its sexual dimorphism among study population.

Methods: This study involved 450 children (230 males and 220 females) between 3-14 years old in Southern Nigerian.  The humeral length was measured as distance between lateral epicondyle distally palpated when elbow was flexed to 90 degrees and acromion proximally palpated lateral end of clavicle. Definitive right and left humeral lengths (RHL and LHL) were derived by subtracting 2.5 mm from measured length. Average values of RHL and LHL were evaluated as morphological humeral length (MHL) for each subject. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 20 and statistical comparisons done using t-test with p < 0.05 regarded as level of significant difference.

Results: In all age groups, non-significant bilateral variation was observed with the RHL higher than the LHL among both male and female subjects. In addition, the results showed significant (p<0.05) sexual dimorphism in all age groups with mean±SEM of MHL among 3-6 years old higher in females (19.45±0.81) than in males (18.63±0.83).  However, the reverse was observed among higher age groups with mean±SEM of MHL in 7-10- and 11-14-years old males (24.43±0.95 and 28.75±0.94) significantly higher than in 7-10 years old and 11-14 years old females (22.85±0.91 and 26.73±0.84) respectively.

Conclusions: Based on findings of this study, humeral morphometrics particularly the humeral length can be applied as a significant indicator of sexual dimorphism among the study population.


Keywords


Anthropometry, Humeral length, Nigerian children, Sexual dimorphism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Oludiran OO, Omotoso DR, Sakpa CL. Nasofacial Indices among Children in Southern Nigeria. Afr J Biomed Res. 2012;15(2):141-3.

Varalakshmi VS, Mehmood S, Gopichand PVV, Kumar D. Anthropometry: as a tool in learning living anatomy. Scholars J Appl Med Sci. 2017;5(5):1938-44.

Omotoso DR, Oludiran OO, Sakpa CL. Anthropometric study of Nasal index among the Bini ethnic group in Nigeria. Int J Biol Sci. 2010;2(4):68-70.

Golalipour MJ, Vakilli MA, Ahamadpour M. Height and weight of newborns in relation with mother age, race and parity. J Qazvin Univ Med Sci. 2001;16:58-64.

Omotoso DR, Baxter-Grillo D, Adagbonyin O, Bienonwu E. Comparative assessment of cephalic index among Bini and Igbo tribes in Benin City, Nigeria. Int J Anat Res. 2019;7(2):6685-9.

Orish CN. Cephalic index in sexual dimorphism and racial diversity: a mini review. MOJ Anat Physiol. 2018;5(1):23-6.

Omotoso DR, Oludiran OO, Sakpa CL. Nasofacial anthropometry of adult bini tribe in Nigeria. Afr J Biomed Res. 2011;14(3):219-21.

Omotoso DR, Adagbonyin O, Bienonwu E, Uwagbor V. Anthropometric evaluation of nasal height, nasal breadth and nasal index among Bini children in Southern Nigeria. Int J Anat Res. 2019;7(3):6896-900.

Sinnatamby CS. Last’s Anatomy-Regional and Applied. 11th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK; 2006: 105-107.

Moore KL, Dalley AF, Agur AMR. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. 6th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA; 2010: 676-677.

Rai R, Chawla M. Morphometry of adult humerus in Morabad region. Int J Biomed Adv Res. 2014;5(3):163-5.

Radoinova D, Tenekedjiev K, Yordanov Y. Stature estimation from long bone lengths in Bulgarians. Homo. 2002;52(3):221-32.

Srimani P, Datta M, Saha A, Mazumdar S. Prediction of total length of humerus from its fragments in West Bengal population. Int J Anat Rad Surg. 2017;6(1):A001-6.

Mathew AJ, Gopidas GS, Sukumaran TT. A study of the supertrochlear foramen of the humerus: Anatomical and clinical perspective. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(2):AC05-8.

Karmali NK, Modi S. Morphological and morphometric study on bicipital groove of humerus in eastern Indian population. Int J Med Health Res. 2019;5(3):25-7.

Sinha P, Bhutia KL, Tamang BK. Morphometric measurements of segments in dry humerus. J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2017;6(67):4819-22.

Chaudhary RK, Dhakal A, Sah SK, Parajuli SB, Pokhrel S, Deo SK. Morphometric evaluation of dry humerus bone in a Medical College Of Eastern Nepal. Br J Health Sci. 2019;4(2)9:729-33.

Jaiswal P, Verma RK. Analysis of morphometric segments of humerus with clinical relevance in Rajasthan region. Int J Med Sci Edu. 2019;6(2):121-7.

Navid S, Mokhtari T, Alizamir T, Arabkheradmand A, Hassanzadeh G. Estimation of stature from upper arm length in Medical students. Anat Sci J. 2014;11(3):135-40.

Borkar MP. Estimation of height from the length of humerus in western region of Maharashtra. Int J Res Med Sci. 2014;2(2):498-500.

Aydin Kabakci AD, Buyukmumcu M, Yilmaz MT, Cicekcibasi AE, Akun D, Cihan E. An osteometric study on humerus. Int J Morph. 2017;35(1):219-26.

Desai SD, Shaik HS. A morphometric study of humerus segments. J Pharm Sci Res. 2012;4(10):1943-5.

Ashiyani ZA, Solanki S, Mehta CD. The morphometric measurement of segments of humerus. J Res Med Dental Sci. 2016;4(1):38-40.

Chatterjee M, Sinha I, Podar R, Ghosal AK. Humeral morphometrics: a study in Eastern Indian population. Int J Anat Res. 2017;5(4):4454-69.

Chatterjee M, Poddai R, Sinha I, Bhattacharya A, Ghosal AK. Segmental morphometrics and their correlation with the whole length of long bones: a study on humerus of eastern India. Ind J Bas Appl Med Res. 2017;6(4):363-72.

Niraj P, Dangol PMS, Ranjit N. Measurement of length and weight of non-articulated adult humerus in Nepalese corpses. J Kathmandu Med Coll. 2013;2(1):25-7.

Akman SD, Karakas P, Bozkir MG. Morphometric measurements of humerus segments. Turk J Med Sci. 2006;36:81-5.

Ismail NA, Khupur NHA, Osman K, Mansar AH, Shafie MS, Nor FM. Stature estimation in Malaysian population from radiographic measurements of upper limbs. Egypt J Foren Sci. 2018;8:22.

Ali DM, Abd Elbaky FAF. Sex identification and reconstruction of length of humerus from its fragments: an Egyptian study. Egypt J Foren Sci. 2016;6:48-55.

Ndou R, Schepartz LA. Morphometric characteristics of the humerus and ulna in limbs bearing the supratrochlear aperture (STA). Anat Records. 2016;299:220-33.