Published: 2020-10-28

Challenges in involvement of male spouse in family planning program in rural areas of Varanasi

Reema Singh, Alok Kumar, Sangeeta Kansal


Background: Globally, men have not shared equally with women the responsibility for fertility regulation. While family planning efforts have been directed almost toward women, the lack of male involvement may also reflect the limited options available to men. Current methods for men are condom, withdrawal, or permanent, such as vasectomy. The success of family planning depends on the involvement of couples but this hardly happen especially in rural areas. It is the belief, though erroneously among most males that the practice of family planning should be the sole responsibility of the female. The present study was a community based cross sectional study with the objective to assess challenges in involvement of male spouse in family planning program in rural areas.

Methods: This is a community based and cross-sectional study was undertaken in randomly selected 4 villages of Kashi vidyapeeth block, Varanasi. Total enumeration of women from the selected villages delivered within last 3 years was done and their husbands were interviewed by using a pre-designed, pre-tested interview schedule. Chi-square test was applied to find out any association between the variables. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant, data was analyzed with statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) 20 trial version.

Results: These preliminary findings are part of thesis shows that out of 130 interviewed respondents, majority (89.5%) had aware about family planning and two third (66.2%) of the respondents said that either they or their wives are using family planning. More than half of the respondents were aware about male sterilization but none of them were using male sterilization. Majority (77.7%) of the respondents said that human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV-AIDS) and 45.4% were said that sexually transmitted diseases or sexually transmitted infections (STDs/STIs) can be prevented by use of condom. More than half (53.8%) of the respondents were sole of the decision maker regarding the use of family planning.

Conclusions: The present study concludes that the majority of the respondents were awareness about the family planning but practices of family planning is low in the study area. Health workers should educate the eligible couples for use of contraceptive methods. Promotion of male contraceptive usage should be done by intense awareness campaigns.


Awareness, Family planning, Male spouse, Practices

Full Text:



Reddy R, Premarajan KC, Narayan KA, Mishra AK. Rapid Appraisal of Knowledge, attitude and practices related to family planning methods among men within 5 years of married life. Indian J Prevsoc Med. 2003;34(1,2):62-7.

Varma GR, Rohini A. Attitude of Spouse towards Family Planning: A Study among Married Men and Women of a Rural Community in West Godavari District, Andhra-Pradesh. Anthropologist. 2008;10(1):71-5.

Nasir JA, Tahir MH, Zaidi AA. Contraceptive attitude and behavior among university men: a study from Punjab, Pakistan. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabada. 2010;22(1):125-8.

United Nations (UN). The International Conference on Population and Development (Cairo). New York: United Nations (UN), ICPD. 1995. Available at- ce-population-and-development-icpd. Accessed on: 31 July 2020.

Cham B. Male involvement in family planning at mandinary village, Kombo north district, West region, The Gambia, aboucarr Cham. Androl Gynecol. 2018;6.

Okwor E, Olaseha I. Married men’s perception about spousal use of modern contraceptives: a qualitative study in Ibadan northwest local government area, southwest Nigeria. Int Quarterly Comm Health Edu. 2010;30(3):223-38.

Wambui T, Ek AC, Alehagen S. Perceptions of family planning among low-income men in Western Kenya. Int Nurs Rev. 2009;56(3):340-5.

Choudhury RH. Unmet need for contraception in South Asia: Levels, trends and determinants. Asia Pacific Population J. 2001;16(3):1-88.

Murithi LK, Santillán D, Dhillon P, Sebany M, Farley K, Ndhlema T, et al. Understanding Couple Communication and Family Planning in Zambia: Formative Research Study Findings and Recommendations, Sustainable Networks (SIFPO 2) project, funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Office of Population and Reproductive Health. Available at: https://www. SIFPO2-Zambia-couple-communication-report_2016_final. pdf. Accessed on 31 July 2020.

IMF and the World Bank December 10, 1999, Available at- prsp.aspx. Accessed on: 31 July 2020.

Aguiar C, Jennings L. Impact of Male Partner Antenatal Accompaniment on Perinatal Health Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Systematic Literature Review. Matern Child Health J. 2015;19(9):2012-9.

Adelekan A, Omoregie P, Edoni E. Male Involvement in Family Planning: Challenges and Way Forward. Int J Popul Res. 2014;9:416457.

Lakshmi MM, Neetha M, Rai S. Contraceptive practices among reproductive age group of women in Justice K. S. Hegde Medical College Hospital, Mangalore. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2013;2(1):39-46.

Prateek SS, Saurabh RS. Contraceptive practices adopted by women attending an urban health centre. African Health Sci. 2012;12(4);416-21. Gore S, Katkuri S. A study to assess contraceptive use among married women in urban and rural areas: a comparative study. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol. 2016;5(9):2978-82.

Singh A, Singh KK, Verma P. Knowledge, attitude and practice GAP in family planning usage: an analysis of selected cities of Uttar Pradesh. Contraception and Reproductive Medicine. 2016;1:20.

National Family and Health System (NFHS-4), 2015-16. Available at- Accessed on 31 July 2020.

Khurram AS, Shaikh BT, Hameed W. Rates of IUCD discontinuation and its associated factors among the clients of a social franchising network in Pakistan. BMC Womens’ Health. 2012;12:8.

Tilahun T, Coene G, Luchters S, Kassahun W, Leye E, Temmerman M, Degomme O. Family planning knowledge, attitude and practice among married couple in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Plos one. 2013;8(4):e61335.

Jayalakshmi MS, Ambwani K, Prabhakar PK, Swain P. A study of male involvement in family planning, Health and Population. Perspectives and Issue. 2002;25(3):113-23.