The relationship between obesity and obstruction risk of lateral inguinal hernia at Negara general hospital in 2019-2020
Keywords:Hernia, Inguinal hernia, Obesity
Background: A hernia is the protrusion of the abdominal contents from the normal cavity through a defect in the fascia and aponeurotic muscle of the abdominal wall, either congenital or acquired. The hole can arise because the embryonic opening does not close or widen, due to high intra-abdominal pressure caused by chronic coughing, heavy lifting, overweight, obesity, and weakness of the abdominal wall muscles. The incidence of inguinal hernias is higher in patients with body mass index (BMI) who are overweight and obese than those with normal body weight. A study that conducted by Sneiders et al stated that each increase of 1 kg/m2 BMI would increase the risk of hernia complications by 1.03 times (p=0.03).
Methods: This study used a cross-sectional analytic study. The samples were determined by consecutive sampling. In this study, the sample used was patients with a diagnosis of inguinal hernia who were divided based on the presence or absence of complications and divided according to BMI, then saw whether there was a relationship between BMI in the obesity category and the incidence of complication inguinal hernia. This study uses data from medical records at the Negara General Hospital from 2019-2020.
Results: This study used 79 respondents of hernia patients at the Negara General Hospital who met the inclusion criteria and did not meet the exclusion criteria. There were 77 people (97.5%) male respondents and 2 (2.5%) female respondents with a mean age of 53.05 years (SD±19.7 years). As for the underweight body mass index there were 6 people (7.6%), normal as many as 41 people (51.9%), overweight as many as 4 people (5.1%), and obese as many as 28 people (35.4%). The diagnosis of reducible hernia was 52 people (65.8%), 21 people (26.6%) incarcerated hernia, 5 non-reducible hernias (6.3%) and 1 strangulated hernia (1.3%).
Conclusions: The conclusion of this study indicates a significant relationship between BMI and the incidence of complicated hernias. Obese hernia patients were 7.2 times more likely to develop hernia complications than non-obese patients.
Norton JA. Hernias and Abdominal Wall Defects. Surgery Basic Science and Clinical Evidence. Springer. 2001;787-803.
Depkes RI. Distribusi Penyakit Sistem Cerna Pasien Rawat Inap dan Rawat Jalan Menurut Golongan Sebab Sakit di Indonesia. 2004.
Sneiders D, Yurtkap Y, Kroese L, Kleinrensink G, Lange J, Gillion J. Risk Factors for Incarceration in Patients with Primary Abdominal Wall and Incisional Hernias: A Prospective Study in 4472 Patients. Wor J Surg. 2019;43(8):1906-13.
Agustina AV. Hubungan Antara Obesitas Dan Kejadian Hernia Inguinalis. Universitas Negeri Semarang. 2014.
Onuigbo, WIB, Njeze GE. Inguinal Hernia. J Surg Operat Car. 2015;1(2):1-9.
Townsend, Courtney M. Hernias. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 17th Edition. Philadelphia. Elsevier Saunders. 2004;1199-1217.
Chooi Y, Ding C, Magkos F. The epidemiology of obesity. Metabolism. 2019;92:6-10.
Rosemar A, Angerås U, Rosengren A. Body mass index and groin hernia: a 34-year follow-up study in Swedish men. Ann Surg. 2008;247:1064-8.
Abramson JH, Gofin J, Hopp C, Makler A, Epstein LM. The epidemiology of inguinal hernia. A survey in western Jerusalem. J Epidemiol Comm Heal. 1978;32:59-67.
Mueck KM, Holihan JL, Mo J, Flores-Gonzales JR, Ko TC, Kao LS, et al. Computed tomography findings associated with the risk for emergency ventral hernia repair. Am J Surg. 2017;214(1):42-6.
Itatsu K, Yokoyama Y, Sugawara G, Kubota H, Tojima Y, Kurumiya Y, et al. Incidence of and risk factors for incisional hernia after abdominal surgery. Briti J Surg. 2014 ;101(11):1439-47.
Lau B, Kim H, Haigh PI, Tejirian T. Obesity increases the odds of acquiring and incarcerating noninguinal abdominal wall hernias. Am Surg. 2012;78(10):1118-21.
Marsman HA, Heisterkamp J, Halm JA, Tilanus HW, Metselaar HJ, Kazemier G. Management in patients with liver cirrhosis and an umbilical hernia. Surgery. 2007;142(3):372-5.
Sarkhosh K. A Systematic Review of the Association Between Obesity and Inguinal Hernias. In SAGES 2012. Annual Meeting. 2012.