DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20205319

Screening for hemoglobinopathies in a socially disadvantaged population from a rural district of West Bengal, India

Prakas Kumar Mandal, Tuphan Kanti Dolai, Soma Mandal, Tamanash Mondal, Suman Kumar Maji

Abstract


Background: Detection of traits/carriers plays an important role in preventing the birth of a thalassemic child. West Bengal, one of the eastern states in India is the home to a bulk of socially challenged population including scheduled castes and scheduled tribes among others. The present study aimed to detect the prevalence of different hemoglobinopathies in a socially challenged district of West Bengal.

Methods: In this retrospective cross sectional study thalassemia detection camps were organized at the community level over a period of four years. Venous blood samples were subjected to complete hemogram and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In few difficult cases samples were sent to the reference laboratory for molecular characterization. The prevalence of heterozygous, homozygous or compound heterozygous states of different thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies across various respondent groups (e.g. children, premarital, postmarital and antenatal) and existing caste categories (scheduled tribes, scheduled caste and general) were analyzed.

Results: We analyzed a total of 114,606 HPLC reports; 18681 (16.30%), 15438 (13.47%) and 80487 (70.23%) cases belonged to scheduled tribes, scheduled castes and general category respectively. Out of 114,606 cases, 11,001 (9.6%) had revealed abnormal hemoglobins; beta thalassaemia trait was the most common (6.63%; n=7602) across all subgroup analysis. Among others, HbE trait, sickle cell trait and HbD trait were detected in 1788 (1.56%), 1362 (1.18%) and 126 (0.11%) cases respectively.

Conclusions: Beta thalassaemia trait and HbE trait are the common haemoglobin variants in this rural district of West Bengal. The prevalence of sickle gene revealed in the present study is much less than previous studies in the locality.


Keywords


West Bengal, Jhargram district, Socially challenged population, Thalassemia screening

Full Text:

PDF

References


Demographic Features. Public Health in West Bengal- Current Status and Ongoing Interventions. Available at: https://web.archive.org/web/ 20120107060612/http:/censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/prov_data_products_wb.html. Accessed on 24 August 2020.

Colah R, Italia K, Gorakshakar A. Burden of thalassemia in India: The road map for control. Pediatr Hematol Oncol J. 2017;2:79-84.

Public Health in West Bengal–Current Status and Ongoing Interventions. Available at: http://atiwb.gov.in/index_htm_files/Public%20Health%20in%20West%20Bengal.pdf. Accessed on 24 August 2020.

Choudhuri S, Sen A, Ghosh MK, Misra S, Bhattacharyya M. Effectiveness of prenatal screening for hemoglobinopathies in a developing country. Hemoglobin. 2015;39(6):380-3.

Mohanty D, Colah RB, Gorakshakar AC, Patel RZ, Master DC, Mahanta J, et al. Prevalence of β-thalassemia and other haemoglobinopathies in six cities in India: a multicentre study. J Community Genetics. 2013;4(1):33-42.

Dolai TK, Dutta S, Bhattacharyya M, Ghosh MK. Prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in rural Bengal, India. Hemoglobin. 2012;36(1):57-63.

Bhatla S. Educational status of socially disadvantaged group in India. Scholar Res J Interdiscipl Stud. 2017;4(35): 6282-93.

Hans VB. Dalits in India: From Marginalisation to Inclusion. SSRN Electron J. 2016;1(4):448 61.

Sreelakshmi PR, Vijaykumar K, Anish TS, Shrinivasa BM, Sheela S, Abraham A, et al. Anemia and body mass index of non pregnant tribal women of reproductive age group in Palakkad district of Kerala, India. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 2012;43:35-41.

Tribes in West Bengal. Available at: http://www.bharatonline.com/west-bengal/culture/tribal-population.html. Accessed on 24 August 2020.

Registrar General of India. Data Highlights: The Scheduled Tribes. Census of India; 2011.

Census of India 2011. Jhargram district. Available at: https://jhargram.gov.in/demography/. Accessed on 24 August 2020.

Mandal PK, Maji SK, Dolai TK. Present scenario of hemoglobinopathies in West Bengal, India: an analysis of a large population. Int J Med Public Health. 2014;4(4):496-9.

Maharatna A. Population, economy and society in West Bengal since the 1970s. J Develop Stud. 2007;43:1381-422.

Ghosh K, Colah RB, Mukherjee MB. Haemoglobinopathies in tribal populations of India. Indian J Med Res. 2015;141(5):505-8.

Teli AB, Deori R, Saikia SP. Haemoglobinopathies and β-thalassaemia among the tribals working in the tea gardens of Assam, India. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(12):LC19-22.

Majumdar D, Basak J, Chakraborty A, Mukhopadhyay S, Pal N, Mukhopadhyay A. Beta thalassemia in different tribal population in West Bengal, India. Blood. 2010;116:5170.

Chattopadhyay P, Kundu S, Saha TN, Chatterjee K. Study of hemoglobinopathies at a referral laboratory in a western district of West Bengal among the antenatal women and premarital men and women: a 2 years study. Int J Contemp Med Res. 2019;6(6):F24-7.

Kaur M, Dangi CB, Singh M, Singh H, Kapoor S. Burden of sickle cell diseases among tribes of India-a burning problem. Int Res J Pharm Appl Sci. 2013;3(1):60-80.

Colah RB, Mukherjee MB, Martin S, Ghosh K. Sickle cell disease in tribal populations in India. Indian J Med Res. 2015;141(5):509.

Ray R, Roy S, Sarkar A, Chowdhury R, Bhattacharyya M. Near extinction of HbS among the tribes in Bengal: an effect of epistasis? Blood. 2017;130(1):4777.

Kumar MM, Pathak VK, Ruikar M. Tribal population in India: A public health challenge and road to future. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2020;9:508-12.