DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20205326

Occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in newly diagnosed hypertensive adult Gujarati patients in G. K. General Hospital, Bhuj

Aalisha U. Dodhiya, Darshan Patel

Abstract


Background: A study of 30 newly diagnosed hypertensive Gujarati patients visiting the OPD of G. K. General Hospital, Bhuj, Gujarat, India was carried out. The main aim of the study was to estimate the occurrence of metabolic syndrome in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients

Methods: The study was carried out in a period of 2 months and data was collected after obtaining prior consent of patients and IEC approval. Blood pressure, waist circumference and BMI (body mass index) of the selected patients were measured while blood sample was collected for the laboratory investigations. The data collected was analysed using appropriate software

Results: On observation, out of 30 hypertensive patients 22 (73.33%) patients suffered from metabolic syndrome. Also in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome, along with hypertension 63.63% (n=14) patients suffered from hypertriglyceridemia, 68.18% (n=15) patients had low HDL cholesterol, 77.27% (n=17) patients had high FBS, 72.72% (n=16) patients had abnormal BMI and 63.63% (n=14) patients had abnormal waist circumference.

Conclusions: This very high occurrence values signifies the need of study with larger sample size based on region for further evaluation to treat the high risk patients on early diagnosis.


Keywords


Metabolic syndrome, Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, Cardiovascular disease

Full Text:

PDF

References


Reaven GM. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes. 1988;37:1595-607.

Expert panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. Executive Summary of the third report of the National cholesterol education program (ncep) expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (adult treatment panel III). JAMA. 2001;285(19):2486-97.

Cornier MA, Dabelea D, Hernandez TL, Lindstrom RC, Steig Aj, Stob NR, et al. The metabolic syndrome. Endocer Rev. 2008;29:777-22.

Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Daniels SR, Donato KA, Eckel RH, Franklin BA, et al. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American heart association/National heart, lung, and blood institute scientific statement. Circulation 2005;112:2735-52.

Gami AS, Witt BJ, Howard DE, Erwin PJ, Gami LA, Somers VK, et al. Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident cardiovascular events and death: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:403-14.

Leeder S, Raymond S, Greenberg H, Liu H. A race against time, the challenge of cardiovascular disease in developing economies. Available at: http://www.ccdcindia.org/wp-content/uploads/ 2015/12/A-RACE-AGAINST-TIME.pdf. Accessed on 20 August 2020.

Srinath RK, Shah B, Varghese C, Ramadoss A. Responding to the threat of chronic diseases in India. Lancet 2005;366:1744-9.

Gupta R. Trends in hypertension epidemiology in India. J Hum Hypertens. 2004;18:73-8.

European Society of Hypertension, European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Available at: https://www.escardio.org/Guidelines/Clinical-Practice-Guidelines/Arterial-Hypertension-Management-of. Accessed on 20 August 2020.

Kannel WB. Risk stratification of dyslipidemia: insights from the Framingham Study. Curr Med Chem Cardiovasc Hematol Agents. 2005;3:187-93.

Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ. Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med. 1998;15:539-53.

Balkau B, Charles MA. Comment on the provisional report from the WHO consultation, European group for the study of insulin resistance (EGIR). Diabet Med. 1999;16:442-3.

Einhorn D, Reaven GM, Cobin RH, Ford E, Ganda OP, Handelsman Y, et al. American college of endocrinology position statement on the insulin resistance syndrome. Endocr Pract. 2003;9:237-52.

Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National health and nutrition examination survey. JAMA. 2002;287:356-59.

Mokdad AH, Bowman BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. JAMA. 2001;286:1195-200.

Ferrannini E, Natali A, Capaldo B, Lehtovirta M, Jacob S, Yki-Jarvinen H. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and blood pressure: role of age and obesity, European Group for the study of insulin resistance (EGIR). Hypertension. 1997;30:1144-9.

Kaplan MN. Primary hypertension: pathogenesis. In: Kaplan’s clinical hypertension. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2002: 109-110.

Cuspidi C, Meani S, Fusi V, Severgnini B, Valerio C, Catini E, et al. Metabolic syndrome and target organ damage in untreated essential hypertensives. J Hypertens. 2004;22:1991-8.

Schillaci G, Pirro M, Vaudo G, Gemelli F, Marchesi S, Porcellati C, et al. Prognostic value of the metabolic syndrome in essential hypertension. J Am Coll Cardio. 2004;l19:1817-22.

Sorkhou EI, Al-Qallaf B, Al-Namash HA, Ben-Nakhi A, Al-Batish MM, Habiba SA. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among hypertensive patients attending a primary care clinic in Kuwait. Med Princ Pract. 2004;13:39-42.

Siddique MA, Sultan MAU, Haque KHMS, Zaman MM, Ahmed CM, Rahim MA, et al. Clustering of metabolic factors among the patients with essential hypertension. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2008;34:71-5.

Adegoke OA, Adedoyin RA, Balogun MO, Adebayo RA, Bisiriyu LA, Salawu AA. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural community in Nigeria. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2010;8:59-62.

Yasein N, Ahmad M, Matrook F, Nasir L, Froelicher ES. Metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension attending a family practice clinic in Jordan. East Mediterr Health J. 2010;16;375-80.

Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR. The seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA. 2003;289:2560-72.

Banerji MA, Faridi N, Alturi R, Chaiken RL, Lebovitz HE. Body composition, visceral fat, leptin and insulin resistance in Asian Indian men. J Clin Endocrinal Metab. 1999;84:137-44.

Chandalia M, Abate N, Garg A, Stray-Gundersen J, Grundy SM. Relationship between generalized and upper body obesity to insulin resistance in Asian Indian men. J Clin Endocrinal Metab. 1999;84: 2329-35.

Chowdhury B, Lantz H, Sjostrom L. Computed tomography-determined body composition in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in Indian and matched Swedish males. Metabolism. 1996;45:634-44.

Vikram NK, Pandey RM, Misra A, Sharma R, Devi JR, Khanna N. Non-Obese (body mass index ,25 kg/m2) Asian Indians with normal waist circumference have high cardiovascular risk. Nutrition. 2003;19:503-9.

Misra A, Wasir JS, Vikram NK. Waist circumference criteria for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity are not applicable uniformly to all populations and ethnic groups. Nutrition. 2005; 21:969-76.

Mehta S. Relationship between measures of fatness, lipids and ethnicity in a cohort of adolescent boys. Ann Nutr Metab. 2002;46:192-9.

WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;364: 157-63.

Deepa M, Farooq S, Datta M, Deepa R, Mohan V. Prevalence of metaboliv syndrome using WHO, ATPIII and IDF definitions in Asian Indians: The Chennai urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-34). Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2007;23:127-34.

Chandra KK, Mahotra S, Gupta M, Ubowega A, Jain S, Kumari S, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among patients with essential hypertension in the hypertension clinic of a North Indian tertiary care hospital. Indian J Cardiol. 2004; 7:27-31.

Chen CH, Len KC, Tsai ST, Chou P. Different association of hypertension and insulin related metabolic syndrome between men and women in 8437 non-diabetic Chineese men. Am J Hypertens. 2000;61:29-37.

Akholkar PJ, Gandhi AA, Shah CM. The Metabolic syndrome among hypertensive patients: a cross sectional study. Int J Adv Med. 2015;2:188-91.

Wasir JS, Misra A. The metabolic syndrome in asian Indians: The impact of nutritional and socio-economic transition in India. Metab Syndr Relat Discord. 2004;2:14-23.

Misra A, Khurana L, Ishwarlal S, Bhardwaj S. South Asian diets and insulin resistance. Br J Nutr. 2009;10:465-73.

Warnberg J, Marcos A. Low-grade inflammation and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolscents. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008;19:11-5.

Singhal N, Misra A, Shah P, Gulati S, Bhatt S, Sharma S, et al. Impact of intensive school-based nutrition education and lifestyle interventions on insulin resistance, β-cell function, disposition index, and subclinical inflammation among Asian Indian adolscents: A controlled intervention study. Metab Syndr Relat Discord. 2011;9:143-50.

Pandit K, Goswami S, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay P, Chowdhury S. Metabolic syndrome in South Asians. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2012;16:44-55.

Balagopal P, Kamalamma N, Patel TG, Misra R. A community baseddiabetes intervention and management education program in a rural village in India. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1097-104.

Prabhakaran D, Reddy KS. The metabolic syndrome: looking beyond the debates. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011;90:19-21.