The effect of vitamin D3 supplements on the 25(OH)D levels in the II and III trimester of pregnant women in Sleman, Indonesia: randomized controlled trial

Amalina T. Susilani, Hertanto W. Subagio, Noor Pramono, Martha I. Kartasurya


Background: Pregnant women are among the groups at high risk of vitamin D3 deficiency due to the increased need for micro and macro nutrients during pregnancy. Vitamin D3 deficiency is associated with pregnancy complications, namely preterm birth, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, and babies born small according to their gestational age.

Methods: The study involved a randomized pretest-posttest control group design. Subjects selected include 80 pregnant women in second trimester. Data were collected in June 2020 to September 2020. The respondents were then randomly divided into 2 groups, comprising 40 each, where the first received 400 IU/day vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 weeks, and the second served as a control. Furthermore, 25 (OH) D were measured by using the ELISA method.

Results: The mean value of the 25(OH)D levels after D3 supplementation and statistically showed a significant difference with a significance value of p<0.05 (0.01), compared to the control group.  Furthermore, the mean value of the 25(OH)D levels in the control group actually decreased by 2.7 ng/ml which was statistically significant with a p value of 0.00, compared to the control group. Furthermore, the mean value of the 25(OH)D levels in the control group actually decreased by 2.7 ng/ml which was statistically significant with a p value of 0.00.

Conclusions: Vitamin D3 supplement of 400 IU per day can increase the levels of 25(OH)D in the II and III trimester of pregnant women in antenatal care (ANC), Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta.


II and III trimester pregnant women, 25(OH)D levels, Vitamin D3 supplement

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