Incidence of tennis elbow and association of hand grip strength among college students
Keywords:Grip strength, Lateral epicondylitis, Pain, Students, Tennis elbow
Background: Lateral epicondylitis is an overuse injury involving the origin of common extensor tendon at elbow joint. Among the college students there is more complaint on wrist and elbow. Objective was to find out the incidence of tennis elbow & grip strength among the students during the entire academic year.
Methods: Three hundred and seventy subjects fulfilled the inclusion criteria with age respondents between seventeen to twenty four years. This study is done in those students who have local tenderness on palpation over the lateral epicondyle (grade 2). NPRS was used for measuring the pain intensity. Mill’s test and Cozen’s test was performed to confirm the tennis elbow. The subject is asked to squeeze the dynamometer three times with left and right hand respectively. There was one minute resting period between each squeeze were taken into account.
Results: The incidence of confirmed tennis elbow was 4.05% & 2.70% in right and left respectively. Among those participants Mill’s test was positive in 16.2% on right and left side and Cozen’s test was positive in 8.1% on right side and 5.4% on left side. The mean rank of left and right grip strength for the students who are confirmed as tennis elbow were 52.75 Kg and 50.67 Kg and for not-confirmed were 36.56 Kg and 36.41 Kg respectively.
Conclusions: The study concluded that 6.7% incidence rate of tennis elbow was observed in college students during the entire academic year. And also concluded there is no much significance correlation between grip strength and tennis elbow incidence rate.
Hough P A, Nel M. Postural risks and musculoskeletal discomfort of three preferred positions during laptop use amongst students. South Afr J Occupational Therapy. 2017;47(1):3-8.
Callegari B, De Resende MM, Da Silva Filho M. Hand rest and wrist supports are effective in preventing fatigue during prolonged typing. J Hand Therapy. 2018;31(1):42-51.
Jepsen JR. Studies of upper limb pain in occupational medicine, in general practice, and among computer operators. Danish Med J. 2018;65(4).
Upadhyay S, Shukla Y, Patel KK. Effects of progressive strengthening exercises in chronic lateral epicondylitis. Inter J Health Sci Res. 2017;7(4):244-57.
Madeleine P, Vangsgaard S, Andersen JH, Ge HY, Arendt Nielsen L. Computer work and self-reported variables on anthropometrics, computer usage, work ability, productivity, pain, and physical activity. BMC Musculoskeletal Dis. 2013;14(1):1-10.
Evans J P, Porter I, Gangannagaripalli JB, Bramwell C, Davey A, Smith CD, et al. Assessing patient-centred outcomes in lateral elbow tendinopathy: a systematic review and standardised comparison of english language clinical rating systems. Sports Med. 2019;5(1).
Fan ZJ, Silverstein BA, Bao S, Bonauto DK, Howard NL, Smith CK. The association between combination of hand force and forearm posture and incidence of lateral epicondylitis in a working population. Human factors: J Human Factors Ergon Soci. 2013;56(1):151–65.
Descatha A, Albo F, Leclerc A, Carton M, Godeau D, Roquelaure Y, et al. Lateral epicondylitis and physical exposure at work? a review of prospective studies and meta-analysis. Arthritis Care Res. 2016;68(11):1681–7.
Shiri R, Viikari Juntura E. Lateral and medial epicondylitis: role of occupational factors. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2011;25(1):43-57.
Pienimäki T, Tarvainen T, Siira P, Malmivaara A, Vanharanta H. Associations between pain, grip strength, and manual tests in the treatment evaluation of chronic tennis elbow. Clin J Pain. 2002;18(3):164-70.
Romero E, Ortega. Elbow position affects handgrip strength in adolescents: validity and reliability of Jamar, DynEx, and TKK dynamometers. 2010;24(1):272-7.
Coldham F, Lewis J, Lee H. The Reliability of one vs. three grip trials in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Subjects. J Hand Surg. 2006;19(3):318-27.
Puh U. Age-related and sex-related differences in hand and pinch grip strength in adults. Int J Rehabil Res. 2010;33(1):4-11.
Schmidt N, van der Windt D, Assendelft W, Mourits A, Deville W, de Winter A, et al. Interobserver Reproducibility of the Assessment of Severity of Complaints, Grip Strength, and Pressure Pain Threshold in Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;83(11):45-50.
Incel NA, EsmaCeceli, Durukan PB, RanaErdem H, RezanYorgancioglu Z. Grip Strength: Effect of Hand Dominance. Singapore Med J. 2002;43(5):234-7.