Epidemiological and clinical profile of snakebite patients: a retrospective analysis at a tertiary care teaching hospital of southern Rajasthan, India
Keywords:Bleeding, Coagulation markers, Intensive care unit, Snakebite, Anti-snake venom
Background: Snakebite - a global public health problem can be a traumatic experience for patients. They may develop local pain and swelling at the site with or without systemic involvement (haematological and neurological) and at times complications depending upon nature of snake. The present study was planned to determine the epidemiological and clinical profile of snakebite patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital of southern Rajasthan, India.
Methods: This retrospective observational study was carried out at a tertiary care teaching hospital only after approval from institutional ethics committee. The data of patients aged between 18-80 years of either gender that had presented with a history of snakebite and admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in past 3 years were included. Data related to epidemiological, clinical and investigational parameters was collected and analysed. Data was presented as number (percentage) or mean ± standard deviation.
Results: Total 80 patients were analyzed. Male:female ratio was 1.67:1 and mean age of study population was 33.91±14.34 years. Maximum 71 (89%) patients belonged to rural region. Only 16 (20%) patients complained of local pain. Bleeding was noted in 5 (6.25%) patients whereas 36 (45%) patients had ptosis. Prolonged coagulation markers were reported in 35 (44%) patients. Only 2 (2.5%) patients had acute kidney injury. Altered liver and renal function tests were noted in 71 (89%) and 63 (79%) patients respectively. Mechanical ventilation was required in 27 (34%) patients.
Conclusions: Young adult males and rural population were prone to snakebites. Local and systemic manifestations were noted in relatively lesser patients compared to the published data. Only fewer patients in I.C.U. required mechanical ventilation.
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