Retinal abnormalities in children suffering from low hemoglobin levels

Sharda Punjabi, Gauri Devasthali, Archana Gulati


Background: Anemia is a major public health problem with total prevalence of 30%. It is one of the hematological disorders which can induce retinal changes that are due to retinal hypoxia that leads to nerve fiber layer infarction. Other change includes increased vascular permeability, venous stasis, angiospasm and increased blood viscosity.

Methods:  This is the cross-sectional study that includes 230 children with age group of 1 to15 years having hemoglobin levels less than 10 gm/dl referred to eye OPD. Ocular examination was done which included-visual acuity, anterior segment, dilated fundus examination.

Results: Retinopathy was observed in 95% children of severe anemia and 84% children of moderate anemia. Common findings observed vascular changes, dot blot hemorrhages, flame shaped hemorrhages, sub hyaloids hemorrhages, disc pallor and macular edema.

Conclusions: Retinopathy is a frequent finding seen in moderate to severe anemic patients, as the retinal changes were found significantly in maximum patients, it is recommended that all anemic patients particular Hb less than 10 g/dl must undergo routine fundus examinations.



Anemia, Venous tortuosity, Flame shaped hemorrhages, Dot blot hemorrhages, Sub hyaloid hemorrhages, Macular edema, Disc pallor

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