Effect of hot and cooled carbohydrate diet on glycemic response in healthy individuals: a cross over study
Keywords:Cooled, Glycemic response, Retrogradation, Resistant starch
Background: Cooling of starch after cooking is known to cause starch retrogradation which increases resistant starch content. Resistant starch cannot be digested in the gut and acts as dietary fiber. The study aimsed to determine the effect of cooling of carbohydrate rich diet on glycemic response on healthy adults.
Methods: The present study was a randomized, single blind, crossover study where 20 healthy subjects were selected. Two rice preparations were used, one freshly prepared hot, second, cooked and cooled at 4°C for 12 hours. All subjects were evaluated after giving both rice preparations separately with a crossover period of 7 days. Glycemic response was checked over a period of 2 hours at various time intervals using ACCU-CHEK® Active glucometer.
Results: Glycemic response with cooled white rice was better in comparison to freshly prepared hot white rice at all time points (mean±SD, 121.9±17.4 vs 128.0± 22.1 mg/dl). However, the difference in means at 30 mins was maximum and statistically significant (p<0.001).
Conclusions: Cooled white rice yields better glycemic response when consumed by healthy individuals possibly due to formation of resistant starch.
Berry CS. Resistant starch formation and measurement of starch that survives exhaustive digestion with amylolytic enzymes during the determination of dietary fiber. J Cereal Sci. 1986;4:301-4.
Sievert D, Pomeranz Y. Enzyme-resistant starch II. Characterization and evaluation by enzymatic, thermoanalytical and microscopic methods. Cereal Chem. 1989; 66:342-7.
Eerlingen RC, Delcour JA. Formation, analysis, structure and properties of type III enzyme resistant starch. J Cereal Sci. 1995;22:129-38.
Sajilata MG, Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR. Resistant starch: a review. Compr Rev Food Sci F. 2006;5:1-17.
Nugent AP. Health properties of resistant starch. Br Nutr Foundation Nutr Bull. 2005;30:27-54.
Eliasson AC, Gudmundsson M. Starch: physiochemical and functional aspects. In: Eliasson AC, editors. Carbohydrates in food. 3nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 2017:479- 578.
Sonia S, Witjaksono F, Ridwan R. Effect of cooling cooked white rice on resistant starch content and glycemic response. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2015;24:620-5.
Englyst HN, Cummings JH. Digestion of the polysaccharides of some cereal foods in the human small intestine. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985;42:778-7.
Englyst HN, Cummings JH. Digestion of the carbohydrates of banana (Musa paradisiaca sapientum) in the human small intestine. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;44:42-50.
Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Cummings JH. Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1992;46:33-50.
Cummings JH. Digestion and physiological properties of resistant starch in the human large bowel. British J Nutr. 1996;75:733-47.
Cummings JH, Englyst HN. Fermentation in the human large intestine and the available substrates. Am J Clin Nutr. 1987;45:1243-55.
Johnston KL, Thomas EL, Bell JD, Frost GS, Robertson MD. Resistant starch improves insulin sensitivity in metabolic syndrome. Diabetic Med. 2010;27:391-7.
Bodinham CL, Smith L, Thomas EL, Bell JD, Swann JR, Costabile A, et al. Efficacy of increased resistant starch consumption in human type 2 diabetes. Endocrine Connections. 2014;3:75-84.
Chiu YT, Stewart ML. Effect of variety and cooking method on resistant starch content of white rice and subsequent postprandial glucose response and appetite in humans. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22:372-9.
Ananda D, Zuhairini Y, Sutadipura N. Resistant starch in cooled white rice reduce glycaemic index. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2013;7:38.
Dewi AP, Isnawati M. Effects of freshly cooked white rice and yesterday (retrograded) white rice on postprandial blood glucose levels in prediabetic female subjects. JNC. 2013;2:411-8.
Walter M, Silva L, Denardin CC. Rice and resistant starch: Different content depending on methodology. J Food Comp Anal. 2005;18:279-85.
Atkinson FS, Powell K, Miller JC. International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:2281-3.
Miller JB, Pang E, Bramall L. Rice: a high or low glycemic index food? Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:1034-6.
Panlasigui LN, Thompson LU, Juliano BO, Perez CM, Yiu SH, Greenberg GR. Rice varieties with similar amylose content differ in starch digestibility and glycemic response in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:871-7.
Weickert MO, Pfeiffer AFH. Impact of dietary fiber consumption on insulin resistance and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. J Nutr. 2018;148:7-12.
Yamada Y, Hosoya S, Nishimura S, Tanaka T, Kajimoto Y, Nishimura A et al. Effect of bread containing resistant starch on postprandial blood glucose levels in humans. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:559-66.
Zhou J, Martin RJ, Tulley RT, Raggio AM, McCutcheon KL, Shen L, et al. Dietary resistant starch upregulates total GLP-1 and PYY in a sustained day-long manner through fermentation in rodents. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:1160-6.
Robertson MD, Currie JM, Morgan LM, Jewell DP, Frayn KN. Prior short-term consumption of resistant starch enhances postprandial insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. Diabetologia. 2003;46:659-65.
Ruppin H, Meir B, Soergel KR, Wood CM, Schmitt MG. Absorption of short chain fatty acids by the colon. Gastroenterol. 1980;78:1500-7.
Roediger WEW, Moore A. Effect of short chain fatty acids in sodium absorption in isolated human colon perfused through the vascular bed. Dig Dis Sci. 1981;26:100-6.