Audit of lower urinary tract endoscopic procedures in Borno, North-Eastern Nigeria

Usman M. Tela, Abdu M. Lawn, Ahmed A. Mohammed, Hassan M. Dogo, Bukhari A. Ghide


Background: Endourology which includes lower urinary tract (LUT) endoscopy, is an important component of standard urological practice worldwide. The objective of our study was to audit the LUT endoscopic procedures performed in Borno, a state in north-eastern Nigeria and share our experience.

Methods: We, retrospectively reviewed the Lower urinary Tract endoscopies performed in Borno state over 9 years, from January 2012 to December 2020. Data related to LUT endoscopies were extracted from the patients’ clinical notes and operation theatre registers of the 2 focused hospitals in Borno where endourology procedures were performed (University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital and Royal specialist hospital maiduguri) and then analyzed. Urology patients who did not undergone LUT endoscopy were excluded.

Results: We analyzed the data of total sum of 201 patients for the 2 hospitals, which represented the sample size for the study. Mean age of patients was 47.2years, with male to female ratio of 3.5:1. Bladder tumor with or without haematuria (31.3%) was the commonest indication for LUT endoscopy, seconded by removal of ureteric double J stents (23.4%). Urethrocystoscopy (74.0%) was the commonest procedure performed predominantly under local anaesthesia, for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Conclusions: We reported LUT endoscopies in Borno which was commonly indicated in bladder tumors presenting with or without haematuria. Urethrocystoscopy is the commonest procedure. As we get more endourology equipment in the public hospital many of our patients will benefit from these minimally invasive procedures in both lower and upper urinary tract diseases.


Endoscopy, Endourology, Lower urinary tract, Urethrocystoscopy

Full Text:



Igbokwe M, Abu S, Aremu A, Olatise O, Okafor M. Spectrum of endo-urological procedures performed at a Nigerian kidney transplant centre. Yen Med J. 2020;2(4):74-9.

Miller RA. Eendoscopic surgery of the upper urinary tract, British Medical Bulletin. 1986;3:274-9,

Takure AO, Shittu OB, Adebayo SA, OlapadeOlaopa EO, Okeke LI. Day case endourology in surgical outpatient clinic at Ibadan: A 5-year review. African J Urol. 2012;18(3):112-7

Salako AA, Badmus TA, Sowande OA,Adeyemi BA, Nasir AA, Adejuyigbe O. Endourology in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital-current level of practice and challenges. Nigerian J Surg Res. 2005;3(4):268-70.

Mahadevan V. Anatomy of the lower urinary tract, Surgery (Oxford). 2016;7(34)318-25.

Shu'aibu SI, Gidado S, Ardill W, Shu'aibu J, Dakum NK, Ramyil VM. Lower urinary tract endoscopic procedures in Jos. J Med Tropics. 2011;14(1):74-7.

Popoola AA, Abiola OO, Arogundade AK, Ademoroti SA, Buhari T. Outpatient flexible urethrocystoscopy-initial experience at university of ilorin teaching hospital. J West African Surg. 2013;3(3):87-94.

Ibrahim AG, Aliyu S. Bladder cancer, a ten-year experience in Maiduguri north-eastern Nigeria. IJSER. 2015;6(2):55-9.

Eni U, Na'aya H, Nggada H, Dogo D. Carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Maiduguri: The Schistosomiasis Connection. Internet J Oncol. 2007;5(2):1-7.

Mwashambwa MY, Yongolo CS. Urethrocytoscopy: Findings and early complications. IMTU Med J. 2011;2(2):356-63.

Tela UM, Geidam AD, Aisha I, Kullima A, Chama CM. Burden of symptomatic renal stones in pregnancy managed till normal delivery. urol nephrol open access J. 2016;3(2):00073.

Eziyi AK, Eziyi JAE, Salako AA, Aderounmu AOA. Early experience with endourology at ladoke akintola university of technology teaching hospital, osogbo. Nigerian J Clin Practice. 2010;13(1):24-7.

Oranusi CK, Nwofor A, Obiesie EA. Experience with the rigid cysto-urethroscope: a multicentre review in Anambra State, South-East Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2010;51:180-1.

Alhasan S, Aji S, Mohammed AZ. Malami S. Transurethral resection of the prostate in Northern Nigeria, problems and prospects. BMC Urol. 2008;8:18.

Omodu OJ, Okengwu C, Gershon-Wali C. A three year review of the use of sterile water as an irrigation fluid for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Int J Inno Med Health Sci. 2020;12:69-72.

Tela UM, Lawan AM, Olajide BD. Monopolar trans-urethral resection of prostate: our initial experience in a new African hospital with few resources. Int Surg J. 2020;7(11):3546-9

Memon A, Buchholz NP, Salahuddin S. Water as an irrigant in transurethral resection of the prostate: a cost-effective alternative. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 1999;71(3):131-4.