Socio-demographic profile and mode of attempt of suicide among suicide attempters in Kashmir: a hospital-based study
Keywords:Clinical profile, Depression, Suicide, Suicidal attempt
Background: Suicide is an important and serious public health problem. It is one of the major emergencies in psychiatry. This study was carried out to assess the socio-demographic profile and mode of attempt of suicide among suicidal attempters attending emergency.
Methods: This study was a cross sectional, observational study conducted at Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences-Kashmir, an associated hospital of Government Medical College Srinagar, among the suicide patients attending the outpatient service and inpatient services fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria over a period of one and a half year. Each patient was informed about the purpose of interview; his/her consent was obtained in a simple and easily understandable unambiguous language.
Results: A total of 221 cases who had been admitted following unsuccessful suicide attempts to the emergency and psychiatry department were taken up for the study. Out of which 161 (72.9%) were females and 60 (27.1%) were males, the mean age was 24.61±8.9 years. Lower middle and upper lower classes occupied an equal percentage of 34.4% of the suicide attempters, while 24% belonged to upper middle class and only 5.9% belonged to lower class .The least no. of cases (1.4%) were from the upper classes. The most common mode adopted was poisoning whereas the least common mode was self- immolation. Poisoning and self-mutilation were proportionally high in females as compared to males with a significant p value.
Conclusions: There should be a robust system in place which takes care of future management and follow up of this group of population.
Singh V, Gupta DK, Desai NG. Sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients with attempted suicide attending emergency services at the Mental Health Institute in Northern India. J Mental Health Hum Behav. 2014;19( 2):69-73.
Fleischmann A, Malik A, Brunier A. Suicides in the world: Global Health Estimates. World Health Organization. 2012;7:5-9.
Alem A, Jacobsson L, Kebede D. Awareness and attitudes of a rural Ethiopian community toward suicidal behaviour a key informant study in Butajira, Ethiopia. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1999;397:65-9.
Lester D. Suicide and islam. Arch Suicide Res. 2006;10(1):77-97.
Vijayakumar L, Nagaraj K, Pirkis J. Suicide in developing countries: frequency, distribution, and association with socioeconomic indicators. Crisis. 2005;26:104-11.
Schmidtke A, Brahe U, Deleo D. Attempted suicide in Europe: rates, trends and sociodemographic characterstics of suicide attempters during the period 1989-1992. Results of the WHO/EURO multicentre study on parasuicide. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 996;93(5):327-38.
Schlebush L. Suicidal behavior in South Africa. Ist edn. Pietermaritzburg University of KwaZulu Natal Press. 2005.
Schlebush L, Vawda NB, Bosch BA. Suicidal behavior in black South Africans. Crisis. 2003;24(1):24-8.
Singh K, Jindwani K, Sahu RN. Demographic profile of patients with attempted suicide. Biomed Res. 2012;23(2):234-6.
Singh T, Sharma S, Nagesh S. Socio-economic status scales updated for 2017. Int J Res Med Sci. 2017;5(7):3264-7.
Loranger AW, Janca A, Sartorius N. Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorders: The ICD-10 international personality disorder examination (IPDE). Cambridge University Press. 1997;4:17.
Besk AT. The prediction of suicide. Pennsylvania, Charles Press. 1974:43-44.
Baby S, Haridas MP, Yesudas KF. Psychiatric diagnosis in attempted suicide. Calicut Med J. 2006;4(3):2.
Purushothaman P, Premarajan KC, Sahu SK. Risk factors and reporting status for attempted suicide: a hospital based study. Int J Med Pub Health. 2015;5(1):45-9.
Galgali RB, Rao S, Ashok MV. Psychiatric diagnosis of self poisoning cases:a general hospital study. Indian J Psychiat. 1998;40(3):254-9.
Margoob MA, Firdosi MM, Banal R. Community prevalence of trauma in South Asia-experience from Kashmir. JK Practitioner. 2006:14-17.
Shoib S, Dar MM, Bashir H. Psychiatric morbidity and the sociodemographic determinants of patients attempting suicide in Kashmir valley: a cross-sectional study. IJHSR. 2012;2(7):45-53.
Jan MM, Rather YH, Majeed N. Psychosocial risk factors and clinical profile associated with attempted suicide in young adult and adolescent patients in conflict zone-Kashmir. ANN Trop Med Public Health. 2017;10:154-9.
Ghanate A, Deepak RS, Patil V. Socio-demographic profile in suicide attempters. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2013;2(3)85-91.
Manhas RS, Manhas A, Manhas GS. Psychiatric Morbidity among patients of suicide. JMSCR. 2019;7(6):331-6.
Kodali M, Kilaru K. Psychiatric morbidity of attempted suicide patients admitted to a general hospital in rural area of South India. IOSR J Dental Med Sci. 2013;4(3):46-50.
Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Brain stimulation methods in: Kaplan and Sadocks synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioural sciences/clinical psychiatry.10th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2007:527-561.
Qusar MM. Psychiatric morbidity among suicide attempters who needed ICU intervention. BSMMU J. 2009;2(2):73-7.
Roy J, Adiluzzaman AF, Hassan T. Sociodemographic profile and psychiatric morbidities of suicide attempters : a cross sectional observation in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Bang J Psychiatry. 2018;30(2):36-40.
Lin C, Yen TH, Juang YY. Psychiatric comorbidity and its impact on mortality in patients who attempted suicide by paraquat poisoning during 2000-2010. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(11):112160.
Spijker BAJ, Graafsma T, Dullaart HIA. Impulsive but fatal self poisoning with pesticides among South Asians in Nickerie, suriname: an exploratory autopsy study crisis. J Crisis Interven Suicide Prevention. 2009;30(2):102-5.
Gould RA, Apter A. The epidemiology of youth. Suicide In: Suicide in children and adolescent. Cambridge University. 2003;63:85.
Beghi M, Jerrold F, Rosenbaum. Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal repetition of suicide attempt: a critical appraisal. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010;23(4):349-55.