Socio-demographic profile and mode of attempt of suicide among suicide attempters in Kashmir: a hospital-based study

Shaveta Bhagat, Irm Yasmeen, Mohammad Maqbool Dar, Ibrar Ahmed


Background: Suicide is an important and serious public health problem. It is one of the major emergencies in psychiatry. This study was carried out to assess the socio-demographic profile and mode of attempt of suicide among suicidal attempters attending emergency.

Methods: This study was a cross sectional, observational study conducted at Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences-Kashmir, an associated hospital of Government Medical College Srinagar, among the suicide patients attending the outpatient service and inpatient services fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria over a period of one and a half year. Each patient was informed about the purpose of interview; his/her consent was obtained in a simple and easily understandable unambiguous language.

Results: A total of 221 cases who had been admitted following unsuccessful suicide attempts to the emergency and psychiatry department were taken up for the study. Out of which 161 (72.9%) were females and 60 (27.1%) were males, the mean age was 24.61±8.9 years. Lower middle and upper lower classes occupied an equal percentage of 34.4% of the suicide attempters, while 24% belonged to upper middle class and only 5.9% belonged to lower class .The least no. of cases (1.4%) were from the upper classes. The most common mode adopted was poisoning whereas the least common mode was self- immolation. Poisoning and self-mutilation were proportionally high in females as compared to males with a significant p value.

Conclusions: There should be a robust system in place which takes care of future management and follow up of this group of population.



Clinical profile, Depression, Suicide, Suicidal attempt

Full Text:



Singh V, Gupta DK, Desai NG. Sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients with attempted suicide attending emergency services at the Mental Health Institute in Northern India. J Mental Health Hum Behav. 2014;19( 2):69-73.

Fleischmann A, Malik A, Brunier A. Suicides in the world: Global Health Estimates. World Health Organization. 2012;7:5-9.

Alem A, Jacobsson L, Kebede D. Awareness and attitudes of a rural Ethiopian community toward suicidal behaviour a key informant study in Butajira, Ethiopia. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 1999;397:65-9.

Lester D. Suicide and islam. Arch Suicide Res. 2006;10(1):77-97.

Vijayakumar L, Nagaraj K, Pirkis J. Suicide in developing countries: frequency, distribution, and association with socioeconomic indicators. Crisis. 2005;26:104-11.

Schmidtke A, Brahe U, Deleo D. Attempted suicide in Europe: rates, trends and sociodemographic characterstics of suicide attempters during the period 1989-1992. Results of the WHO/EURO multicentre study on parasuicide. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 996;93(5):327-38.

Schlebush L. Suicidal behavior in South Africa. Ist edn. Pietermaritzburg University of KwaZulu Natal Press. 2005.

Schlebush L, Vawda NB, Bosch BA. Suicidal behavior in black South Africans. Crisis. 2003;24(1):24-8.

Singh K, Jindwani K, Sahu RN. Demographic profile of patients with attempted suicide. Biomed Res. 2012;23(2):234-6.

Singh T, Sharma S, Nagesh S. Socio-economic status scales updated for 2017. Int J Res Med Sci. 2017;5(7):3264-7.

Loranger AW, Janca A, Sartorius N. Assessment and diagnosis of personality disorders: The ICD-10 international personality disorder examination (IPDE). Cambridge University Press. 1997;4:17.

Besk AT. The prediction of suicide. Pennsylvania, Charles Press. 1974:43-44.

Baby S, Haridas MP, Yesudas KF. Psychiatric diagnosis in attempted suicide. Calicut Med J. 2006;4(3):2.

Purushothaman P, Premarajan KC, Sahu SK. Risk factors and reporting status for attempted suicide: a hospital based study. Int J Med Pub Health. 2015;5(1):45-9.

Galgali RB, Rao S, Ashok MV. Psychiatric diagnosis of self poisoning cases:a general hospital study. Indian J Psychiat. 1998;40(3):254-9.

Margoob MA, Firdosi MM, Banal R. Community prevalence of trauma in South Asia-experience from Kashmir. JK Practitioner. 2006:14-17.

Shoib S, Dar MM, Bashir H. Psychiatric morbidity and the sociodemographic determinants of patients attempting suicide in Kashmir valley: a cross-sectional study. IJHSR. 2012;2(7):45-53.

Jan MM, Rather YH, Majeed N. Psychosocial risk factors and clinical profile associated with attempted suicide in young adult and adolescent patients in conflict zone-Kashmir. ANN Trop Med Public Health. 2017;10:154-9.

Ghanate A, Deepak RS, Patil V. Socio-demographic profile in suicide attempters. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2013;2(3)85-91.

Manhas RS, Manhas A, Manhas GS. Psychiatric Morbidity among patients of suicide. JMSCR. 2019;7(6):331-6.

Kodali M, Kilaru K. Psychiatric morbidity of attempted suicide patients admitted to a general hospital in rural area of South India. IOSR J Dental Med Sci. 2013;4(3):46-50.

Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Brain stimulation methods in: Kaplan and Sadocks synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioural sciences/clinical psychiatry.10th ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2007:527-561.

Qusar MM. Psychiatric morbidity among suicide attempters who needed ICU intervention. BSMMU J. 2009;2(2):73-7.

Roy J, Adiluzzaman AF, Hassan T. Sociodemographic profile and psychiatric morbidities of suicide attempters : a cross sectional observation in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Bang J Psychiatry. 2018;30(2):36-40.

Lin C, Yen TH, Juang YY. Psychiatric comorbidity and its impact on mortality in patients who attempted suicide by paraquat poisoning during 2000-2010. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(11):112160.

Spijker BAJ, Graafsma T, Dullaart HIA. Impulsive but fatal self poisoning with pesticides among South Asians in Nickerie, suriname: an exploratory autopsy study crisis. J Crisis Interven Suicide Prevention. 2009;30(2):102-5.

Gould RA, Apter A. The epidemiology of youth. Suicide In: Suicide in children and adolescent. Cambridge University. 2003;63:85.

Beghi M, Jerrold F, Rosenbaum. Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal repetition of suicide attempt: a critical appraisal. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010;23(4):349-55.