Chronic venous insufficiency: a review


  • José Ángel Barajas Colón Department of Angiology and Vascular Surgery, CMNSXXI, CDMX, Mexico.
  • Juan José Granados-Romero Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, CDMX, Mexico.
  • Baltazar Barrera-Mera Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, CDMX, Mexico.
  • Rodrigo Banegas-Ruiz Department of Traumatology, Rehabilitation Hospital, Luis Guillermo Ibarra, Ibarra
  • José Juan Vargas-Morales Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, CDMX, Mexico
  • Elvira Barrera-Calva Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, CDMX, Mexico
  • Francisco Fabián Gómez-Mendoza Department of Hand Surgery, Central Military Hospital, CDMX, Mexico
  • Carlos Rubén Baca-Domínguez Department of Hand Surgery and Microsurgery, Rehabilitation Hospital, Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra, CDMX, Mexico
  • Yuri Jiménez Caprielova Department of Surgery, Angeles Villahermosa Hospital, Mexico
  • Emilio Pérez Ortega Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, CDMX, Mexico
  • Rodrigo A. Mendoza-Aceves Department of Anesthesiology, Angeles del Pedregal Hospital, CDMX, Mexico
  • Ana Lilia Abundez-Pliego Department of Surgery, PEMEX General Hospital, Ciudad del Carmen, Mexico
  • Luis David Cortés-Badillo Department of Anesthesiology, PEMEX General Hospital, Ciudad del Carmen, Mexico
  • Agustín Reyes-Gutiérrez Department of Anesthesiology, PEMEX General Hospital, Ciudad del Carmen, Mexico
  • Óscar Gómez-Chacón Department of Anesthesiology, PEMEX General Hospital, Ciudad del Carmen, Mexico
  • Karen Uriarte-Ruiz Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, CDMX, Mexico
  • Mariana del Carmen Radilla-Flores Department of Plastic Surgery, CENIAQ, CDMX, Mexico
  • Nelson Niels Espinosa Queb Department of Plastic Surgery, CENIAQ, CDMX, Mexico
  • Alejandro Ángel Corona Figueroa Department of Plastic Surgery, CENIAQ, CDMX, Mexico
  • Bruno Andrés Salazar Trujillo Department of Plastic Surgery, CENIAQ, CDMX, Mexico
  • Mario Gutiérrez Hernández Department of Surgery, Central North Hospital PEMEX, CDMX, Mexico
  • Alan Isaac Valderrama-Treviño Department of Surgery, Central North Hospital PEMEX, CDMX, Mexico



Chronic venous insufficiency, Sclerotherapy, Phlebotonics, Vompression stockings, Radiofrequency, Endovenous therapy, Angiology


Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) comprises a complete spectrum of morphological and functional abnormalities of the venous system1 including any long-term functional and morphological alteration. CVI accounts for several abnormalities of the venous system. It is a highly prevalent disease that causes serious economic consequences, a decrease in the quality of life and can lead to serious complications. An exhaustive review was performed with the available literature, using the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus and Cochrane databases from 2004 to 2021. The search criteria were formulated to identify reports related to chronic venous insufficiency. The pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency begins with chronic venous hypertension and the dilation of the vessel, this leads to a series of pathological changes in the venous wall and surrounding tissues, in advanced stages of CVI, skin lesions are associated with an increased proliferation of skin capillaries and microcirculatory abnormalities that may be the result of an altered level of factors responsible for the angiogenic response, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and angiostatin. In this review, updates on pathophysiology, clinic, diagnosis, classification and treatment of this disease are analyzed, with special emphasis on therapeutic options. Chronic venous insufficiency is a disease that affects the patient at several levels, mainly diminishing his/her quality of life. Currently there are various treatments ranging from habit modifications, pharmacological, to endovenous and surgical treatment.



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How to Cite

Barajas Colón, J. Ángel, Granados-Romero, J. J., Barrera-Mera, B., Banegas-Ruiz, R., Vargas-Morales, J. J., Barrera-Calva, E., Gómez-Mendoza, F. F., Baca-Domínguez, C. R., Jiménez Caprielova, Y., Pérez Ortega, E., Mendoza-Aceves, R. A., Abundez-Pliego, A. L., Cortés-Badillo, L. D., Reyes-Gutiérrez, A., Gómez-Chacón, Óscar, Uriarte-Ruiz, K., Radilla-Flores, M. del C., Espinosa Queb, N. N., Corona Figueroa, A. Ángel, Salazar Trujillo, B. A., Gutiérrez Hernández, M., & Valderrama-Treviño, A. I. (2021). Chronic venous insufficiency: a review. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 9(6), 1808–1815.



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