DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20161915

Effect of ethanol leaves extract of Justicia schimperi on liver enzymes, serum proteins and bilirubin

Oboso E. Etim, Jessie I. Ndem, Utibe Evans Bassey

Abstract


Background: The effect of ethanolic leaves extract of Justicia schimperi on liver function was investigated. The liver enzymes studied include aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and bilirubin.

Methods: 30 adult albino Wistar rats with weight ranging from 150g to 224g were used. They were divided into five groups of 6 rats per group. Varying doses of 274mg/kg, 547mg/kg, 821mg/kg and 1095mg/kg per body weight of Juisticia schimperi leaves extract were orally administered daily to test groups II, III, IV and V for 14 days respectively.  Group (I) however served as control that received normal rat pellets and water only.

Results: The results showed that there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the activities of AST, GGT and ALT in all the test groups; ALP in Groups III and IV when compared to control. On the other hand, the results also showed no significant increase at (p<0.05) in the concentrations of total bilirubin and direct bilirubin of the test groups when compared to control. Also, albumin, globulins and total proteins showed significant increase (p<0.05) when compared to control.

Conclusions: Therefore, the observed changes in the parameters assessed, signifies the hepatotoxic impact of Justicia schimperi leaves which may be due to the doses administered and duration of administration or present of some bioactive substances.

 


Keywords


Justicia schimperi, Hepatotoxicity, Liver enzymes, Bilirubin

Full Text:

PDF

References


Acharaya, JP, Deepak, CJ, Anshu, SV. Indigenous Herbal Medicines. Tribal Formulations and Traditional Herbal Practices. 2008;18:32-8.

Fabricant DS, Fainsworth NR. The Value of Plants used in Traditional Medicine for Drug Discovery. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2001;109:69-75.

Ashafa AOT, Yakubu MT, Grierson DS, Afolayan, AJ. Toxicological Evaluation of the Aqueous Extract of Felicia muricata Thumb Leaves in Wistar Albino Rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009;6(4):949-54.

Burkill, HM. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd ed. Families A-D Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, United Kingdom. 1985;960.

Bassey ME, Effiong EO. Preliminary Investigation of Herbs used in Paediatric Care among the People of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Natural Products and Plant Resources. 2011;1(3):33-42.

Lawal, IO, Uzokwe, NE, Ladipo, DO, Asinwa, IO, Igboanugo, ABI. Ethnophytotherapeutic Information for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure among the People of Illugun, Illugun Area of Ogun State, South- West Nigeria. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2009;3(4):222-6.

Sandeep D, Ramanjeet K, Ruhil S, Balhara M, Dhankhar S, Chhillar AK. A review on Justicia adhatoda: A Potential Source of Natural Medicine. African Journal of Plant Science. 2011;5(11):620-7.

Salalamp P, Chuakul W, Temsiririrkkul R, Clayton T. Medicinal Plants in Thailand, Amarin Printing and Publishing Public Co, Bangkok. 1996;1-21.

Barry VC, Conalty ML, Rylance HJR. Antitubercular Effects of an Extract of Adhatoda vasica. Nature. 1955;176:119-20.

Pandey G. Anticancer Herbal Drugs of India with Special Reference to Ayurveda. Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi. 2002;18-121.

Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S. Medicinal uses and Pharmacological Actions of Five commonly used Indian Medicinal Plants: A Mini-Review. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2008;7:107-14.

Young, DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests. AACC Press, Washington D.C. 1990;35.

Young, DS, Davis, RB, O’Connor, BB, Eisenberg, DM. Clinical Chemistry. 1975;21:5.

Kochmar, JF, Moss DW. Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, N.W. Tietz. 1974;604.

Doumas BT, Perry BW, Sanon EA, Straumford JV. Standardization in Bilirubin Assays: Evaluation of Selected Methods and Stability of Bilirubin Solutions. Clinical Chemistry. 1979;19: 884-93.

Gray C, Howorth PJ. Clinical Chemical Pathology. The ELBS, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., 9th ed. 1982;67-73/263-9.

Rahman MF, Siddiqui MK, Jamil, K. Effects of Vepacide (Azadirachta indica) on Aspartate and Alanine Aminotransferase Profiles in Sub-chronic Study with Rats. Journal of Human Experimental Toxicology. 2001;20:243-9.

Wolf PL, Williams D, Tsudaka T, Acosta L. Methods and Techniques In: Clinical Chemistry. John Wiley and Sons USA. 1972;23-9.

Singh NS, Vats P, Suri S, Shyam R, Kumria MML, Ranganathan S, et al. Effect of an Antidiabetic Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Enzymic Activities in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2001;76:269-77.

Dufour DR, Lott JA, Nolte FS, Gretch DR, Koff RS, Seeff LB. Diagnosis and Monitoring of Hepatic Injury. I. Performance Characteristics of Laboratory Tests. Clinical Chemistry. 2000;46(12):2027-49.

Navarro CM, Montilla MP, Martin A, Jimenez J, Utrilla MP. Free Radical Scavenging and Antihepatotoxic Activity of Rosamarinus tomentosus. Planta Medica. 1993;59:312-4.

Aquaisua NA, Bassey BR, Ikpeme MB, Bassey IE. Effect of Crude Extracts of Blighia unijugata on Histology of the Liver and Kidney of Adult Wistar Rats. Toxicology International. 2011;19(1):63-7.

Abdulrahman FI, Onyeyili PA, Sanni S, Ogugbuaja, VO. Toxic Effect of Aqueous Root Bark Extract of Vitex doniana on Liver and Kidney Functions. International Journal of Biology and Chemistry, 2007;1:184-5.

Ogunka-Nnoka CU, Uwakwe AA, Nwachoko NC. Serum Enzyme and Histological Studies of Albino rat Treated with Ethanol/Potash Extract of Sorghum bicolor Leaf Sheath. Indian Journal of Drugs and Diseases. 2012;1(3):74-8.

Essam F. Al-Jumaily and Faiha’a, M. khaleel. The Effect of Chronic Liver Diseases on some Biochemical Parameters in Patients’ Serum. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2012;4(5):638-42.

Adebayo AH, Abolaji AO, Opata TK, Adegbenro, IK. Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Chrysophyllum albidum G. on Biochemical and Haematological Parameters of Albino Wistar Rats. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;9(14):2145-50.