DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20161917

Effect of Syzygium cumini (jamun) seed powder on dyslipidemia: a double blind randomized control trial

Shivani Sidana, Veer Bahadur Singh, Babu Lal Meena, Sanjay Beniwal, Subhash Chandra, Kulvinder Singh, Rahul Singla, Deepak Kumar

Abstract


Background: Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome characterized by disturbance in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Dyslipidemia, commonly associated in diabetes, is major risk factor for macrovascular complications leading to CAD, major contributor to mortality associated with diabetes. Managing DM without side effects is challenge that attracts researchers toward plant based new products. Many studies have found anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic properties of seeds of Syzygium cumini, attributed to saponins, glycosides and flavonoids. So it should be further explored for its benefits.  The aim was to study the effect of jamun seed powder on dyslipidemia in type 2 DM. 

Methods: Patients with type 2 DM were randomly divided in two groups- group A was supplemented with 10 gms/day jamun seed powder and group B was given placebo powder. Patients and investigators were blinded about treatment allocated. Lipid profile was noted at baseline and 30th, 60th and 90th day. All the data was collected and analyzed at the end of study.

Results: Improvement in dyslipidemia was seen after 60 days of supplementation with S. cumini seed powder. Statistically significant decrease in cholesterol levels by 10.55% and 15.79% in mean triglyceride levels by 8.28% and 13.66%, LDL-c levels by 10.29% and 14.50% was noticed at 60th and 90th day, respectively, reduction in VLDL-c levels by 9.38%, 12.90% and 20.69% was noted at 30th, 60th and 90th day. HDL-c increased significantly by 11.11% and 13.89% in males and 10.81% and 16.21% in females after 60 and 90 days of supplementation with S. cumini seed powder.

Conclusions: A significant overall effect of S. cumini supplementation was found in improvement of lipid profile in type 2 diabetes subjects. However, above results are seen in small number subjects, further multicenter studies with larger sample size, supplementation dose and time should be planned and its effects in detail should be explored. 


Keywords


Syzygium cumini, Dyslipidemia, Diabetes mellitus, Seed powder

Full Text:

PDF

References


Haffner SM, Lehto S, Ronnemma T, Pyorala K, Laakso M. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:229-34.

Turner RC, Millns H, Neil HA, Stratton IM, Manley SE, Matthews DR, et al. Risk factors for coronary artery disease in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS: 23) BMJ. 1998;316:823-8.

Farmer JA. Diabetic dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis: Evidence from clinical trials. Curr Diab Rep. 2008;8:71-7.

Saydah SH, Fradkin J, Cowie CC. Poor control of risk factors for vascular disease among adults with previously diagnosed diabetes. JAMA. 2004;291:335-42.

Mooradian AD. Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nature clinical practice Endocrinology and metabolism. 2009;5(3):150-9.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2009. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(Suppl 1):S13-61.

Brunzell JD, Davidson M, Furberg CD, Goldberg RB, Howard BV, Stein JH, et al. American Diabetes Association, American College of Cardiology Foundation. Lipoprotein management in patients with cardiometabolic risk: Consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:811-22.

Goldberg IJ. Diabetic dyslipidemia: causes and consequences. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2001;86(3):965-71.

Jeyaraj S. Effect of jamun seed powder supplementation on the body mass index and fasting plasma glucose levels in woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Panacea journal of Health Science. 2012;3(1):16-20.

Kohli KR, Singh RH. A clinical trial of Jambu (Eugenia jambolana) in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Journal of Research Ayurveda and Sidda. 1993;13:89-97.

Virmani P, Gupta S, Misra, Pandey RM. Effect of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) Supplementation on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in NIDDM. 2016. http://www.japi.org/ january2001/ 23rd_Jan_poster.htm.

Sahana DA, Shivaprakash G, Baliga R, Prabha AMR, Ganesh J, Pai MRSM. Effect of Eugenia Jambolana on Plasma Glucose, Insulin Sensitivity and HDL-C Levels: Preliminary Results of A Randomized Clinical Trial Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2010;3(6):1268-70.

Herculano EA, da Costa C, Rodrigues AKBF, Araújo-Júnior JX, et al. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Effects of Edible Fruits of Syzygium cumini Myrtaceae (L) Skeels in Rats. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2014;13(11):1853-61.

Jambolan. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. Available from: http:// Morton, J. 1987;375-8.

Moses CRA. Clinical assessment of jamun (syzygium cumini) seed powder and syrup on selected type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and hyper- cholesterolaemics. RSSDI. 2013; 119-20.

Sharma AK, Bharti S, Kumar R, Krishnamurthy B, Bhatia J, et al. Syzygium cumini Ameliorates Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Dysfunction via Modulation of PPARγ, Dyslipidemia, Oxidative Stress, and TNF-α in Type 2 Diabetic Rats. J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;119:205-13.

Sharma B, Balomajumder C, Roy P. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of flavonoid rich extract from Eugenia jambolana seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(7):2376-83.

Sharma SB, Nasira A, Prabhua KM, Murthyb PS, Devc G. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;85(2-3):201-6.

Ravi K, Rajasekaran S, Subramanian S. Anti hyperlipidemic effect of Eugenia jambolana seed kernel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005;43(9):1433-9.

Patel SS, Saravanan R, Pari L. Antihyperglycaemic, antihyperlipidemic, antiantioxidant effects of dihar, a polyherbal ayrvedic formulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Indian J.Exp.Biol. 2009;47(7):564-70.

Siddiqui S, Sharma B, Ram G. Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-hyperlipemia Effects of Syzygium Cumini Seed in Alloxan Induced Diabetes mellitus in Swiss Albino Mice (Mus musculus). Med Aromat Plants 2014;3:4.