Predisposing factors and outcome of uterine rupture in Jos, North-central Nigeria

Makshwar L. Kahansim, Dalyop D. Nyango, Tinuade A. Oyebode, Christopher O. Egbodo, Charles U. Anyaka, Victor C. Pam


Background: Uterine rupture has continued to be an obstetric catastrophe with tragic maternal and foetal outcomes particularly in Nigeria.

Methods: an institutional, cross sectional retrospective study was carried out at Jos University Teaching Hospital, North-Central Nigeria. Case files of mothers with uterine rupture managed at the hospital from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2019 were retrieved and included in the study. Data extracted from case files included maternal age, parity, gestational age, booking status, presence of uterine scar, obstetric interventions prior to rupture, site of rupture, type of surgery, units of blood transfused, intensive care unit admission and duration of hospital stay and maternal or foetal death.

Results: the incidence of uterine rupture was 1 in 497 deliveries (0.2%). The mean age of the patients was 30.1±5.1years. About 75% of the patients were para 1-4. Seventeen (70.8%) patients were unbooked while fourteen (58.3%) had unscarred uterine rupture. Eight out of 14(57.1%) patients with unscarred uterus had uterotonics for induction or augmentation of labour. Fourteen (58.3%) patients had rupture involving anterior lower uterine segment. Over half of the patients had uterine repair only (58.3%), 29.2% had uterine repair with bilateral tubal ligation while 12.5% had subtotal hysterectomy. Twenty-two (91.7%) required blood transfusion, five patients had 5 or more units of blood transfused. The perinatal mortality was 69.6%, there was no maternal death.

Conclusions: the major predisposing factors to uterine rupture in our facility were lack of antenatal care, presence of previous caesarean section scar and injudicious use of uterotonics.


Jos, Nigeria, Outcome, Predisposing, Rupture, Uterine

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